Types of Memory in RFID Tags

Gen 2 RFID tags are comprised of an antenna and a chip (more accurately called an integrated circuit, or IC). The ICs for Gen 2 tags contain four types of memory:
* Reserved memory
* EPC memory
* TID memory
* User memory

When starting your application and selecting a tag, in order to know about how much memory is on each tag’s IC, you can check the specifications page on each tag’s data sheet. To learn the properties of each memory bank, we have outlined them below:

Reserved Memory:
This memory bank stores the kill password and the access password (each are 32 bits). The kill password permanently disables the tag (very rarely used), and the access password is set to lock and unlock the tag’s write capabilities. This memory bank is only writable if you want to specify a certain password. Most users do not use this memory area unless their applications contain sensitive data. It cannot store information besides the two codes.

EPC Memory:
This memory bank stores the EPC code, or the Electronic Product Code. It has a minimum of 96 bits of writable memory. The EPC memory is what is typically used in most applications if they only need 96 bits of memory. There are some tags that have the capability of allocating more bits to the EPC memory from the user memory. EPC memory is your first writable memory bank.

TID Memory:
This memory is used only to store the unique tag ID number by the manufacturer when the IC is manufactured. Typically, this memory portion cannot be changed.

User Memory:
If the user needs more memory than the EPC section has available, certain ICs have extended user memory which can store more information. When it comes to user memory, there is no standard in how many bits of memory are writable on each tag. Typically, the extended memory is no more than 512 bits, but there are some high memory tags with up to 4K or 8K bytes of memory. This is the second writable memory bank for Gen 2 ICs.

UHF RFID Tag IC-Alien Higgs-3

Higgs-3 is a highly integrated single chip UHF RFID Tag IC. The chip conforms to the EPCglobal Class 1 Gen 2 specifications and provides state-of-the-art performance for a broad range of UHF RFID tagging applications.

Higgs-3 is a highly integrated single chip UHF RFID Tag IC. The chip conforms to the EPCglobal Class 1 Gen 2 specifications and provides state-of-the-art performance for a broad range of UHF RFID tagging applications.

Higgs-3 operates at extremely low power levels yet still provides sufficient backscatter signal to read tags at extended range. It can also be programmed at low RF power and, in conjunction with a custom command – LoadImage – be programmed at high speed. Higgs-3 is implemented in a low cost CMOS process and uses proven and cost effective EEPROM technology.

Higgs-3 offers a flexible memory architecture that provides for the optimum allocation of EPC and User memory for different use cases such as legacy part numbering systems and service history. User memory can also be read and or write locked on 64-bit boundaries, supporting a variety of of public/private usage models.

The IC also features a factory programmed 64-bit serial number that cannot be altered. In conjunction with the EPC code, this provides a unique “fingerprint” for the tagged item.

Alien Higgs-3 RFID IC Features
* Meets EPCglobal Gen2 (V 1.2.0) as well as ISO/IEC 18000-6C
* Worldwide operation in the RFID UHF bands (860-960 MHz)
* 800-Bits of Nonvolatile Memory
– 96-EPC Bits, extensible to 480 Bits
– 512 User Bits
– 64 Bit Unique TID
– 32 Bit Access and 32 bit Kill Passwords
* Pre-Programmed with a unique, unalterable 64-bit serial number
* User Memory can be Block Perma-Locked as well as read password protected in 64 Bit Blocks
* Supports all Mandatory and Optional Commands including Item Level Commands
* Custom Commands for high speed programming; 30 tags per second for the 96-bit EPC number
* Low power operation for both read and program
* Exceptional operating range, up to 10m with appropriate antenna

Alien Higgs-3 RFID IC Applications
* Supply Chain Management
* Distribution Logistics
* Product Authentication
* Asset Inventory and Tracking
* Baggage Handling and Tracking
* Item Level Tagging

What RFID frequency is right for me?

RFID cards and key tags come in three frequencies: low frequency, high frequency and ultra-high frequency. The main differences have to do with the reading distance between the reader and the card or key tag.

Technology options:
Low Frequency (LF) – 125 kHz
Also known as: Prox, HID, Clamshell
Read range: 1”-2”
High Frequency (HF) – 13.56 MHz
Also known as: MiFare, i-Class, NFC
Reader range: 2”– 5”
Ultra High Frequency (UHF) – 900 MHz
Read range: 2” to 30’

When looking for cards you should start with the specification of the reader that the cards or key tags will work with. If you have the flexibility to choose a reader then you can select the card and reader frequency that is right for your environment.

RFID TAGS application in MANUFACTURING

RFID TAGS application in MANUFACTURING

Speed up delivery, reduce waste, control costs and improve your customer service with Informs. Designed specifically for manufacturing, these technology solutions allow you to track materials and labor through production cycles and along supply chains for a tangible ROI and a real competitive advantage.

Informs can help you reduce errors and significantly increase productivity throughout your manufacturing operations with: fully-automated, hands-free data collection; parts marking to track work-in-process and provide lifetime traceability; and real-time data capture integrated into MES, WMS, ERP or other management systems. We offer solutions for asset tracking, load management, product labeling and tracking, receiving, put away, order picking and staging, shipping, inventory management and replenishment, time and attendance, and quality assurance.

Data collection and marking/labeling solutions Handle labor-intensive assembly tasks and optimize and track operations with solutions ranging from fixed-mounted computers and wireless scanners to fully automated environments with printer applicators and RFID readers.

Security and access control For the latest security, Informs delivers a certified wireless installation ensuring optimum performance from your networks. We provide customers with many tools for rapid deployment, fast problem solving, and remote configuration control.

Multiple form factors From a rugged PDA to a full-keyboard handheld computer with scanner and local area radio, our solutions provide manufacturers with the same capabilities they have in nonhazardous environments.

Industrial RFID tag from OPP IOT

OPP IOT provide various industrial RFID tag in ultra-high frequency applications. It mounted on virtually any surface – metal, plastic, wood, paper and animal- making them ideal for tracking assets , supply chain, animal tracking etc.

* Unsurpassed quality – fully automated manufacturing and direct-bonding technology ensure RFID tag reliability.

* Practically limitless options – choose from a broad range of standard sizes and integrated chips, or customize to fit any application.

* Rugged reliability – workable under harsh environment. To achieve good performance in the extreme environment such as high temperature, wafer, chemic solutions etc

ATT5557 chips in access control system

While as technology developed, the traditional EM4100 chip is no longer worked well, because the ID number could be easily duplicated, which make its safety severely be doubted.

Then ATA5557 chips emerged in the stage, it is a chip with pin code embedded, which allow user to set up the password for safety concerns.

To better protect the password, this T5557 chip also adopt a interesting settings, which if the password misread for over 3 times, the chip will permanently locked and can not be used any more.

The market’s response is so appreciated that access control systems based on T5557 chips rapidly occupy the market.

UHF RFID tags application in Oil and Gas industry

The Oil and Gas industry includes far-reaching enterprises from exploration to supply chain, including plant, equipment, tools, personnel, vehicles, machinery, documents and related items. Often it is critical to have ready access to these objects for the conduct of business, with any lapse in access to needed objects and the people that use these objects, potentially causing delays in product delivery and significant financial loses. In addition, critical data resides on company IT assets, which must be secured against information or IT equipment theft.

Oil and gas companies own innumerable assets of a wide variety, from offices to plants to grounds and at sea, all requiring registry, accountability and periodic inspections and maintenance. In addition, a wide range of documents, from geologic studies of oil fields to personnel records, most of which contain sensitive and secret information. Human oversight of these objects and people, or the use of bar coding, have proven inadequate anecdotally.

UHF and Active RFID technologies enable Oil and Gas companies to fundamentally improve processes, enhance customer service and increase profitability.

How does RFID benefit Libraries?

RFID frees up staff time and allows them to interact more with library visitors, develop new services and benefit from faster, smarter transactions. Time and effort is saved through faster, easier issuing, returning and tagging of items. RFID provides improved security systems and flexibility in stock management and inventory control, data collection and trend analysis.

How does RFID improve service to library visitors?
RFID allows you to deliver services smarter, faster and in the way visitors want to receive them. RFID speeds up processing at the issues desk and self service systems can eliminate queues or long waiting times all together. RFID can also provide the means to offer longer opening hours, enhanced customer services and improved stock availability.

RFID Benefits Include:
Faster issuing

Item IDs are stored and read wirelessly from the RFID tag applied to each library item
The tags on multiple items can be read at one time, then automatically issued from your library management software and security disabled… all without the use of a barcode scanner.
Faster returns

The tags on multiple items can be read at one time, then automatically returned into library stock and the security enabled… all without the use of a barcode scanner.
Automatic return shutes and sorting machines allow for an effective 24/7 returns service to customers and a great time saving feature for staff.
Less Manual Labour

By not having to open books or scan barcodes saves staff a lot of physical effort over the course of the day.
Appling RFID tags to items is much easier and quicker than EM security strips.
Customer Self-service

RFID simplifies the self-service process improving convenience and service to library visitors.
Improved Security

RFID security gates don’t give false alarms.
RFID gates have detection rates of up to 95% making them a greater deterent to costly book loss.
RFID gates cover wider entrances with single spans of up to 1.6 metres per aisle.
Gateviewer software shows what items alarmed the security gates and when, giving a better chance of tracking down missing items.
Inventory Scanning

Scan your library with RFID Inventory Wand to find missing items or to perform a stock take in a fraction of the time.

How RFID Works in Textile?

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is the wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data through tags, these tags carry electronically stored information and are attached to objects/textiles in order to identify and track them automatically.

An RFID system is composed by tags (or transponders) that carry the data, a reader (or interrogator) and its associated antenna.

1. The reader transmits a low-power radio signal through its antenna; this signal is received by the tag (via its own antenna) to power an integrated circuit (chip).

2. The tag uses the energy it gets from the signal when it enters the radio field and will briefly converse with the reader to verify, control and exchange data.

3. Once the data is received by the reader, it is then sent to a controlling computer for processing and management.
Total time needed: just few milliseconds!

For more information about RFID Laundry Tag, please visit:http://www.oprfid.com/fabric-laundry-tag.html

Alien Technology

Alien Technology provides UHF Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) products and services to customers in retail, consumer goods, manufacturing, defense, transportation and logistics, pharmaceuticals and other industries. Organizations use Alien’s RFID products and services to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and security of their supply chains, logistics and asset tracking operations. Alien’s products include RFID tags, RFID readers and related training and professional services. Alien’s patented Fluidic Self Assembly (FSA) technology and related proprietary manufacturing processes are designed to enable the manufacture of high volume, low cost RFID tags.

Alien was founded in l994. Alien’s facilities include: its corporate headquarters in Morgan Hill, CA; RFID tag manufacturing facility in Fargo, ND; the Alien RFID Solutions Center in the Dayton, Ohio area, Quatrotec’s offices at the San Francisco International Airport (SFO); and its sales offices in the US, Europe and Asia. Alien is a member of EPCGlobal.