In passive RFID systems the reader and reader antenna send a radio signal to the tag. The RFID tag then uses the transmitted signal to power on, and reflect energy back to the reader.
Passive RFID systems can operate in the low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) or ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio bands. As passive system ranges are limited by the power of the tag’s backscatter (the radio signal reflected from the tag back to the reader), they are typically less than 10 m. Because passive tags do not require a power source or transmitter, and only require a tag chip and antenna, they are cheaper, smaller, and easier to manufacture than active tags.
Passive tags can be packaged in many different ways, depending on the specific RFID application requirements. For instance, they may be mounted on a substrate, or sandwiched between an adhesive layer and a paper label to create smart RFID labels. Passive tags may also be embedded in a variety of devices or packages to make the tag resistant to extreme temperatures or harsh chemicals.