Kids Tagged With RFID Chips?

Kids Tagged With RFID Chips?
The Creepy New Technology Schools Use to Track Everything Kids Do — And the Profit Motive Behind It

The digital tracking and surveillance of school-aged kids has been growing.

Much attention has been given to the phenomenon of corporate tracking of kids’ online activities, activities that violate the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). The law, originally adopted in 1998, requires Web sites aimed at kids to get parental consent before gathering information about those users who are under 13 years. Many companies, including a Disney subsidiary, have violated it. Corporate marketing interests, most notably Facebook, are fighting proposed revisions to COPPA.

A second front in the tracking of young people has gotten far less attention. Schools across the country are adopting a variety of different tools to monitor students both in school and outside school. Among these tools are RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags embedded in school ID cards, GPS tracking software in computers, and even CCTV video camera systems. According to school authorities, these tools are being adopted not to simply increase security, but to prevent truancy, cut down on theft and even improve students’ eating habits.

The RFID tag system popularly known as “Tag and Track” is being sold to schools system across the country by a variety of vendors, including AIM Truancy Solutions, ID Card Group and DataCard.

In general, these systems consist of a school photo ID card affixed to a lanyard that is worn around the student’s neck. The ID has a RFID chip embedded in it. The tag includes a digit number assigned to each student. As a student enters the school or pass beneath a doorway equipped with an RFID reader, the tag ID is read, recorded and sent to a server in the school’s administrative office. The captured data not only provides an attendance list (sent to the teacher’s PDA), but tracks the student’s movement throughout the day.

Students and parents in San Antonio, TX, are up in arms over a decision by the Northside Independent School District to require students at two local schools to wear RFID-equipped nametags as part of the Student Locator Project. The two schools, John Jay High School and Anson Jones Middle School, plan to use the nametags to pinpoint student locations both at the school and outside its premises. In addition, students are required to use the microchip ID when checking out school library books, registering for classes and paying for school lunches.

Pascual Gonzalez, a school district spokesman, said, “We want to harness the power of technology to make schools safer, know where our students are all the time in a school, and increase revenues.” One student, Andrea Hernandez, said the badge “makes me uncomfortable. It’s an invasion of my privacy.”

Local San Antonio news media make clear that something other than school security is at stake. The local school district loses $175,000 a day because of late or absent students and RFID tracking provides a means to improveattendance reporting.

San Antonio is taking its cue from the Houston, TX, school district. It began using RFID chips to monitor students on 13 campuses in 2004. Houston’s Spring Independent School District gave 28,000 students RFID badges to record when they get on and off school buses. The police and school administrators provided the badges to ostensibly prevent truancy and child abductions. In 2010, the school reported, “RFID readers situated throughout each campus are used to identify where students are located in the building, which can be used to verify the student’s attendance for ADA funding and course credit purposes.” Student tracking has reportedly brought them hundreds of thousands of extra dollars.

In Austin, TX, some 1,700 students in eight high schools, with parent permission, are being outfitted with GPS devices to help cut truancy rates. According to local news reports, the program is being run by Dallas-based AIM Truancy Solutions that boasts that its system increases student attendance by around 12 percent.

The increasing use of student monitoring is not limited to Texas. The AIM Truancy Solutions’ GPS tracking program has been adopted in Baltimore, MD, and is now being tested by the Anaheim (CA) Union High School District.

In Anaheim, about 75 seventh- and eighth-graders from Dale and South Junior High Schools are taking part in the pilot program. Students with four or more unexcused absences have “volunteered” to carry a handheld GPS device. Participation in the program will enable the students to avoid being prosecuted and a potential stay in juvenile hall.

Each school day, the delinquent students get an automated “wake-up” phone call reminding them that they need to get to school on time. In addition, five times a day they are required to enter a code that tracks their locations: as they leave for school, when they arrive at school, at lunchtime, when they leave school and at 8pm. These students are also assigned an adult “coach” who calls them at least three times a week to see how they are doing and help them find effective ways to make sure they get to school.

Like San Antonio, Anaheim schools lose about $35 per day for each absent student. Local school officials believe the program can pay for itself as more students attend classes.

The Palos Heights School District in Illinois is attaching GPS locators to students’ backpacks in order to “locate kids in seconds” both in and out of school. The electronic reader registers date, time and location of kids. Administrators justify the tracking and surveillance of students outside of the classroom as for their safety.

A very different monitoring effort is underway on Long Island, NY, in an effort to fight obesity. Selected Bay Shore students designated overweight or obese are being equipped with a wristwatch-like devices that count heartbeats, detect motion and even track students’ sleeping habits. Similar programs are underway in schools in St. Louis, MO, and South Orange, NJ.

In 2010, the Contra Costa County School District received a $50,000 grant to put RFID tags into basketball jerseys that students are supposed to wear while at school. The bulk of the grant went toward setting up sensors around the school to read the tags and computer systems to actually monitor where each student is. The program tracks preschool children.

The Electronic Freedom Foundation warns “… an RFID chip allows for far more than that minimal record-keeping. Instead, it provides the potential for nearly constant monitoring of a child’s physical location.” The consequences of such tracking are serious: “If RFID records show a child moving around a lot, could she be tagged as hyperactive? If he doesn’t move around a lot, could he get a reputation for laziness?”

Not all student-tracking programs work out as planned. In 2005, the Brittan Elementary School in Sutter, CA, abandoned an experimental Tag and Track program. Like similar programs, this RFID tracking used mandatory ID badges to track children’s movements in and around the school. Promoted by a local vendor, InCom, the schools board pulled the plug after the EFF and ACLU raised concerns that the program breached children’s right to privacy.

In 2010, however, a far graver incident of illegal monitoring was revealed in Pennsylvania’s Lower Merion School District. Blake Robbins, a Harriton High School sophomore, reported that a school official confronted him for engaging in “improper behavior” at his home. As the story unraveled, it was revealed that the laptops the school issued to high-school students came equipped with special software that enabled school administrators to spy on students and even their families in their homes.

School administrators argued that the software was installed to find lost or stolen computers. More telling, they admitted that they never told students or their parents about the remote access feature.

ICODE SLI Chip Card

I CODE SLI chip card
The ICODE SLI IC is a dedicated chip for intelligent label like supply chain management as well as baggage and parcel identification in airline business and mail services. This IC is the first member of a product family of smart label ICs based on the ISO standard ISO 15693.
The ICODE system offers the possibility of operating labels simultaneously in the field of the reader antenna(Anticollision). It is designed for long range applications.

ICODE SLI Features and benefits:
> ICODE SLI RF Interface (ISO 15693)
– Contactless transmission of data and supply energy (no battery needed)
– Operating distance: Up to 1.5m (depending on antenna geometry)
– Operating frequency: 13.56 MHz (ISM, world wide licence free available)
– Fast data transfer: up to 53 kbit/s
– High data integrity: 16 Bit CRC, framing
– True anticollision
– Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS)
– Application Family Identifier (AFI) supported
– Data Storage Format Identifier (DSFID)
– Additional fast anticollision read
– Write distance equal to read distance
> EEPROM
– 896 bits for user data, organised in 28 blocks of 4 byte each
– User definable access conditions for memory blocks 0 to 27
– Data retention of 10 years.
– Write endurance 100.000 cycles
> Security
– Unique identifier for each device
– Lock mechanism for each block (write protection)
– Lock mechanism for DSFID, AFI, EAS

ICODE SLI Applications:
> Factory Automation
> Industrial and Laundry
> Asset Management
> Libraries and Rental

TK4100 Proximity ID Card

The TK4100 chip is completely compatible with EM4200 / EM4100/EM4102. The performance and usage of the two chips are the same. As the price of TK4100 chip is very competitive, so TK4100 chip is used in many system instead of EM4200/EM4100/EM4102 chip.

The TK4100 proximity ID card is based on SMC4100 IC connected with a few laps, which are then embedded in plastic. No batteries required. This card is read-only, 40-bit unique number in the Manchester code.

Chip Parameters

Chip Type
TK4100   (compatible with EM4100)
Frequency
125KHz
Mode
R/O
EEPROM Size
40 bit
Protocol
Operating Distance
Up to 50mm (depending on antenna geometry)
Anticollision
no
Applications
Access control systems, Time attendance systems, Loyalty program, Mass transportation ticketing, Staff identification

Card Parameters

Dimention
85.6×54×0.8 mm
Material
PVC, PET, ABS, PC, PETG
Surface
Matt / Glossy / Frosted
printing
offset, silk-screen
Temperature
-25~50 ‘C
Weight
6 grams
Package
200 or 250 pcs/box, or on request

NFC Chip TYPES

NFC CHIPS Types OPTIONS
NFC sticker data is measured in bytes. The NFC chip types and data size for each product is listed in the Excel Sheet below:

Desfire 4k Memory (bytes) User Memory (bytes) URL characters Best Use
Ultralight 64 48 41 Cost effective chip for short URLs in products (wristbands, keyfobs, etc).
NTAG203 168 144 132 Popular, established all-round NFC chip. Cost-effective with good memory capacity.
NTAG210 80 48 41 Cheap, general NFC use with short URLs. Limited availability
NTAG213 180 144 132 Next generation chip, will eventually replace NTAG203. Great Scan Strength.
NTAG215 540 504 492  The ‘one in the middle’. Good memory but limited availability compared to the NTAG216
NTAG216 924 888 854 Large memory and full feature set. Higher price limited availability compared to the NTAG216. makes it suitable for vCard and larger memory use only.
Ultralight C 192 148 132 Specialist applications requiring encryption only. makes it suitable for vCard and larger memory use Poor scan distance with mobile phones only.
MF 1k 1024 716 710 Legacy applications only. Not recommended for general mobile phone NFC usage.
Desfire 4k 4K 4094 2000 Specialist applications requiring strong data encryption only.
Topaz 512 512 454 449 Universally compatible chip available in only a  limited number of products.Useful for vCards or small data storage.

NXP Hitag card

Hitag 1 card
The HT1 DC20 S30, based on the HITAG 1 IC, is a high performance transponder for bi-directional data transmission in half duplex mode.
Data are stored in the transponder in a non -volatile memory (EEPROM). The transponder acts as a passive device, thus not having the need for any internal power supply (battery).
It derives power from the magnetic component of the RF carrier frequency generated by the reader. Data is transmitted by modulating this carrier.
The HT1 DC20 S30 is dedicated for use in secure access systems where the transponder and the reader have to identify each other.
The EEPROM has a capacity of 2048 bits and is organised in 64 pages. Access is provided either in page mode or in block mode, where 1 block includes 4 pages.
Absorption modulation is used to transmit data from the transponder to the reader. The transponder absorbs the magnetic field which hence modulates the current in the reader antenna. Data transmission to the HT1 DC20 S30 uses binary pulse length modulation (BPLM).
The anticollision feature of the transponder allows to operate several transponders simultaneously in thefield of the reader antenna. To use that feature, the reader needs to have implemented the anticollision protocol and mustbe able to detect bit-collisions. (e.g. the Philips HTRM800 long range reader module includes the anticollision protocol.)

Features
> Complete identification transponder for use in contactless applications
> Operating frequency 125 kHz
> Data transmission and supply energy via RF link, no internal battery
> Low power EEPROM technology for writing distance that equals reading distance
> Total memory size 2048 bit
> Parts of memory can be write protected by the user
> Effective communication protocol with outstanding data integrity check
> Secure mutual authentication function
> Encrypted data transmission
> Anticollision protocol for handling of multiple transponders inside the field of the reader antenna.

MIFARE DESFire EV1

MIFARE DESFire EV1
MIFARE DESFire EV1 is ideal for solution developers and providers wanting to combine and support multiple applications on one contactless smart card. It fully complies with the requirements for fast and secure data transmission, flexible memory organization, and interoperability with existing infrastructure.

Key applications
Advanced public transportation
Access management
E-Government incl. social services
Closed loop micro-payment
Loyalty programs

MIFARE DESFire EV1 Key features
Fully ISO / IEC 14443 A 1-4 compliant
2/4/8-Kbyte EEPROM with fast programming
Secure, high-speed command set
High data rates according to ISO / IEC 14443-4:up to 848 Kbit/s
Flexible file structure
Choice of open DES/2K3DES/3K3DES/AES crypto algorithm in hardware
Anti-collision
Privacy protection
Unique 7-byte serial number (ISO cascade level 2)
Data integrity: CRC and bit counting on physical layer
Available in MOA4 modules or 8” sawn bumped wafer
Common Criteria certification: EAL4+ for IC HW and SW

MIFARE DESFire EV1 is based on open global standards for both air interfaces and cryptographic methods. It is compliant to all four levels of ISO / IEC 14443 A and uses optional ISO / IEC 7816-4 commands.

Featuring an on-chip backup management system and the mutual three pass authentication, a MIFARE DESFire EV1 card can hold up to 28 different applications and 32 files per application. The size and access conditions of each file are defined at the moment of its creation, making MIFARE DESFire EV1 a truly flexible and convenient product.

Additionally, an automatic anti-tear mechanism is available for all file types, which guarantees transaction oriented data integrity. With MIFARE DESFire EV1, data transfer rates up to 848 Kbit/s can be achieved, making fast data processing possible. The chip’s main characteristics are denoted by its name DESFire EV1, the first evolution of MIFARE DESFire:DES indicates the commitment for high levels of security – MIFARE DESFire EV1 uses a DES, 2K3DES, 3K3DES and AES hardware cryptographic engine for securing transmission data.
Fire reflects its outstanding position as a Fast, Innovative,Reliable and Enhanced IC in the contactless proximity transaction market.

The Different Types Of RFID Systems

RFID systems can be broken down by the frequency band within which they operate: low frequency, high frequency, and ultra-high frequency. There are also two broad categories of RFID systems-passive and active. In the sections below we will explore the frequencies and types of RFID systems.

RFID Frequencies

Frequency refers to the size of the radio waves used to communicate between RFID system components. RFID systems throughout the world operate inlow frequency (LF),high frequency (HF)andultra high frequency (UHF) bands. Radio waves behave differently at each of these frequencies with advantages and disadvantages associated with using each frequency band.

If an RFID systems operates at a lower frequency, it has a shorter read range and slower data read rate, but increased capabilities for reading near or on metal or liquid surfaces. If a system operates at a higher frequency, it generally has faster data transfer rates and longer read ranges than lower frequency systems, but more sensitivity to radio wave interference caused by liquids and metals in the environment.

The RFID frequency spectrum

RFID is considered as a non specific short range device. It can use frequency bands without a license. Nevertheless, RFID has to be compliant with local regulations (ETSI, FCC etc.)

LF : 125 kHz – 134,2 kHz : low frequencies,
HF : 13.56 MHz : high frequencies,
UHF : 860 MHz – 960 MHz : ultra high frequencies,
SHF : 2.45 GHz : super high frequencies

WHAT IS AN RFID CHIP

WHAT IS AN RFID CHIP

Now, with the development of RFID technology – RFID tags,RFID chips have become an important part in our daily life, believe it or not.
Barcodes will soon exit the stage of history.
Barcode patent was issued in 1952, and since then, it has been widely used, particularly in grocery stores and department stores.
In fact, barcode appeared long before the 1950s. In 90s, it was widely believed to be a new technology.

We human beings are always eager to adopt better and more advanced technology.
RFID technology was invented in the 1969, and the patent of RFID was awarded in 1973. RFID tag is actually a microchip.
RFID chip is a transponder, or what we call transmitter / transponder. It is always ready to receive radio signals from a transceiver or RFID reader.

RFID chips would make a response after receiving a specific radio signal, which means RFID chips own unique ID code and would send back to the transceiver. There is no battery for most RFID chip itself. So RFID chips usually begin working when the wireless signal wakes up and get a response from them.

Compared with bar codes, RFID chip has many advantages. There is no restrictions for how to place RFID chips.rfid

The only requirement is that the RFID chip must be placed within a coverage area of the reader, it can not be separated from water or a metal. RFID chip has a written protection feature, The saved RFID tag data can only be read or modified by authorized users.

RFID chips can be divided into two categories, namely the use of chip technology and the use of active passive chip technology. Early on, the production cost of RFID chips is high, but experts predict that sooner or later RFID manufacturers will reduce their prices.

RFID chips can be used for most goods and even for life on Earth.

RFID chips are widely used in the field of security, such as at the airport, the cargo ,and the luggage, in order to reduce lost luggage rate and simplify the tracking of baggage in the event of any technical failure. When the customer’s flight plan changes, RFID chip can also help staff modify the luggage transport travel.

There are several well-known RFID manufacturers and retailers use RFID chips to manage supply chain processes, from production to shipping, and then put the goods on store shelves. For example, one of the largest employers- RetailGiant in the United States use of “smart shelves” that can automatically alert administrators and staff of complementary items on the shelves.

Wal-Mart and other large supermarket expect all vendors to support RFID tracking, so that they will can know the goods without having to open each box or use a barcode scanner but just use a RFID reader pointing to sealed cargo containers. In addition, banks also try to issue new Visa cards, and take the advantages of smart cards with RFID chips together. So that customers can easily complete the transaction without any cash or coin case.

These smart card reader can also be installed to your phone or other electronic devices, helping users to pay for parking fees or purchase goods. The use of RFID chips tracking in asset can reduce the loss of assets or misplaced, improving the security.

The use of RFID chips can improve the security of sensitive goods, as well as can be used as an additional means of verification.

NFC

Using NFC data is exchanged by two inductively coupled coils — one per appliance — generating an magnetic field with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The field is modulated to facilitate data transfers. For the communication one device acts as the initiator (starting the communication) whereas the other device operates in target mode (waiting for the initiator). Thus not more than two devices can be evolved in the communication.
The rolls of the devices — initiator and target — are assigned automatically during the listen-before-task concept which is part of the mode switching of NFC. In general each NFC device acts in target mode. Periodically the device switches into initiator mode in order to scan the environment for NFC targets (= polling) and then falls back into target mode. If the initiator finds a target an initiation sequence is submitted to establish the communication and then starts exchanging data.
NFC distinguishes two operation modes for communication: passive and active mode.
Passive Mode
In passive mode only the device that starts the communication (the initiator) produces the 13.56 MHz carrier field. A target introduced to this field may use it to draw energy but must not generate a carrier field at its own. The initiator transfers data by directly modulating the field, the target by load-modulating it. In both directions the coding complies with ISO14443 or FeLiCa, respectively. This mode enables NFC-devices to communicate with existing contactless smart cards. The term load modulation describes the influence of load changes on the initiator’s carrier field’s amplitude. These changes can be perceived as information by the initiator. Depending on the size of the coils, ranges up to 10 cm and data rates of 106, 212, and 424 kBit/sec are possible.
Active Mode
When in active mode, both appliances generate an RF field. Each side transmits data by modifying its own field, using an Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) modulation scheme. Advantages compared to passive mode is a larger operating distance (up to 20 cm) and higher transmission speeds (eventually over 1 MBit/sec). To avoid collisions only the sending device emits a electromagnetic field; the receiving entity switches off its field while listening. If necessary these roles can change as often as needed.
Usecases and Applications
An NFC compliant device offers the following modes of communication:
Reader/Writer Mode: In Reader/Writer mode an NFC system acts as an ordinary reader for contactless smart cards. If two or more cards are present in the reader’s carrier field one is selected using an anti-collision algorithm. NFC also takes care of sensing whether the chosen card is ISO 14443-A/B or FeLiCa compliant. The method used for anti-collision is dependent on the type of card detected. This mode causes the NFC device to act as an active device. From an application’s view there is no difference between a conventional and an emulated terminal, accesses to the contactless token proceed equally.
Operating in this mode, the NFC device can read and alter data stored in NFC compliant passive (without battery) transponders. Such tags can be found on e. g. SmartPoster allowing the user to retrieve additional information by reading the tag with an NFC device. Depending on the data stored on the tag, the NFC device takes an appropriate action without any user interaction. If e. g. an URI was found on the tag the handset would open a web browser.
Card Emulation Mode: Tag emulation mode is the reverse of reader/writer mode: A contactless token is emulated. Now the device acts soley in passive mode. Due to the fact that the card is only emulated it is possible to use one NFC wdevice to act on behalf of several „real“ smart cards. Which card is presented to the reader depends on the situation and can be influenced by software. Additionally an NFC device can contain a secure element to store the information for the emulated card in a secure way.
In this case an external reader cannot distinguish between a smart card and an NFC device in card emulation mode. This mode is useful for contactless payment and ticketing applications for example. Actually, an NFC enabled handset is capa-ble of storing different contactless smartcard applications in one device.
Peer-to-Peer Mode: This mode is specific to NFC. After having established a link between the two participants (the method is equal to ISO 14443-A) a transparent protocol for data exchange can be started. The data block size can be chosen freely, with an MTU (maximum transmission unit) limited to 256 bytes. Main purpose of this protocol is to enable the user to send his/her own data as soon as possible (i. e. after a few milliseconds). In a peer-to-peer session either both initiator and target can be in active mode or initiator in active and target in passive mode. This helps the target to reduce its energy consumption and is therefore especially useful if the initiator is a stationary terminal (e. g. a ticket counter) and the target a mobile device (e. g. a mobile phone).
The NFC peer-to-peer mode (ISO 18092) allows two NFC enabled devices to establish a bidirectional connection to exchange contacts, bluetooth pairing information or any other kind of data. Cumbersome pairing processes are a thing of the past thanks to NFC technology. To establish a connection a client (NFC peer-to-peer initiator) is searching for a host (NFC peer-to-peer target) to setup a connection. Then the Near Field Communcation Data Exchange Format (NDEF) is used to transmit the data.

What is the Chip NTAG216F Used for?

The NTAG216F and NTAG213F are the new NFC forum compliant type 2 tag products exclusively developed by NXP semiconductors for their wide applications in electronics (i.e. Bluetooth simple pairing, device authentication, Wi-Fi protected set-up, gaming, connection handover and several others). With different utilities, the NTAG21xF family proffers highly innovative functionalities such as the SLEEP mode, configuration of field detection, FAST_READ command & a configurable password protection. The whole NTAG21xF family has been designed to completely comply with NFC forum Type 2 tag specifications.

The major features and benefits of NTAG216F are as follows –
It supplies energy and provide contactless transmission of data.
It operates on a frequency of 13.56 MHz
The data transfer rate is 106 Kbit per second.
It has the ability to operate from a distance up to 100 mm (depending upon different parameters like antenna geometry and field strength)

The data integrity of the newly invented tag is 16-bit CRC, bit counting, parity and bit coding.
Also, it has 7 byte serial number (cascade level 2 according to ISO/IEC 14443-3)
It has anti-collision properties
Being highly advanced, it has fast read command.
ECC based authentic signature.
Automated NFC counter trigger at read command.
SLEEP mode to re-enable or disable the NTAG216F device from the attached electronics.

Due to its useful features, this device has broad applications in:
Requesting the call
SMS
Call to action
Authentication of device and goods
Bluetooth and Wi-Fi pairing.
Connection handover

Near Field Communication (NFC) technology of NTAG216F are very convenient for large number of customers worldwide by simplifying it to exchange the digital content, make transactions and connect electronic devices with a smooth touch. With a standard connectivity technology, NFC joins varied contactless technologies, facilitating present & future solutions. This highly useful device also paves the way to smart media, mass-market retail applications & electronics. In addition to enhanced radio sensitivity, the all new NTAG type offers password protection ability, additional memory options as well as a number of advance key features.