Ultra high frequency CREATES THE MOST VALUE

Ultra high frequency technology is the fastest growing segment on the RFID market. The majority of new RFID projects are using UHF, as opposed to HF or LF systems. To date, UHF technology has over 20 billion connected items providing real-time visibility and data to a myriad of everyday items. UHF systems are known for generating long read ranges, up to twelve meters (forty feet), whereas HF systems carry a much shorter read range of approximately one meter (three feet). UHF allows for a faster data transfer rate, up to 20 times the range and speed of HF systems. This enables quicker transaction capture times and faster data processing.

As UHF solidifies its position as the global standard and preferred RFID technology across vertical markets, tag prices continue to drop. In 2017, UHF RFID tags cost approximately $.05 to $.15 per tag, whereas HF tags range from $.50 to $2.00 per tag.

Using a UHF RFID system eliminates the need for manual processes, thus increasing inventory visibility and automating workflows. There are countless benefits to incorporating UHF RFID systems into healthcare and life science markets, including:
* Gain real-time visibility of inventory
* Automate inventory tracking and workflows
* Prevent use of expired or recalled products
* Remotely monitor temperature and inventory alerts
* Reduce shrinkage and prevent inventory stock-outs
* Secure access to specified areas or products
* Improve overall business operations

UHF RFID Frequency Regulations

UHF RFID Frequencies vary in each country based on each country’s regulations. Each country adopts an UHF RFID frequency that best fits within that country. These frequency ranges and standards were first put in place by a group of organizations – the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), ASTM International, and EPC Global. These frequency bands are now known as the ISM bands, or the Industrial Scientific and Medical Bands.

UHF RFID Technology uses two main frequency ranges — 902-928 MHz and 865-868 MHz; however, a few countries have adopted either multiple bands or unique ranges on the ISM standard. One such country is Brazil who has adopted two uncommon frequency ranges within the 902-928 MHz range — one being 902-907.5 MHz and the other being 915-928 MHz. In order for UHF RFID equipment to be in compliance with Brazil’s regulations, the RFID reader needs to be set to broadcast within Brazil’s specific frequency ranges. This means that if you bring a UHF RFID reader to Brazil and operate using the full 902-928 MHz frequency range, you are in violation of local governmental regulations.

Frequency ranges also are subject to change. Japan, who previously used two very unique frequency ranges — 952-956.4 MHz and 952-957.6 MHz — has now changed to a frequency range within the 902-928 MHz range. Japan’s frequency range is currently 916.7-920.9 MHz (although 925-957.6 MHz will still be effective until March 31, 2018).

The map above shows the most common UHF frequencies for each country, but some countries have not adopted any frequency range yet. An example of a country that has not adopted a set frequency range would be Egypt who is currently working on getting that into place (as of the time of this article’s original published date).

RFID for Railways

In the US, some 40 % of all intercity freight goes by rail, including 67 % of the coal used by electric utilities to produce power. According to the American Association of Railways, in the US, railroads transport 1.7 million carloads of hazmat each year.
A RFID Railway system is available from FALKEN Secure Networks in a number of configurations designed to economically meet a full range of service requirements. Reader systems provide automated tracking of railcars via RFID tags, Readers and integrated Middleware, and make railcar and locomotive identification and location information available to railroads for asset management and other purposes.
• Traffic and Passenger Information: The system provides accurate and reliable information about where a train is located. This real-time information is forwarded to IT systems and used to
update the passenger information displays at stations and terminals.
• Operation and Maintenance: Precise information about the configuration of wagons within a train can be provided automatically by the system. This information can be integrated with other
systems such as track inspection systems, so that the recorded information can be automatically matched to the actual wagon, thus eliminating errors.
• Location of the Train: The System with the help of the reader determines the location of the train by reading the tag identity as the train passes over the tag at speed. This location data is
transferred to the onboard system and can be used to update passenger information automatically
• Controlling and Positioning of Trains: Some onboard systems require a precise position of the train, for example to control stopping positions. The reader accurately reports
the position when the train passes over an ID-tag. An alternative configuration would be positioning readers on poles at trackside and reading the tagged wagons as they pass. If tags are consistently positioned, for example, at the mid-point of the train, the identification of the tag would be correlated with the length of the wagon and exact speed could be determined in the software application.
In combination with requirements, new applications and various report formats can be rapidly prototyped and deployed. In addition to the standard configuration, our team of experienced engineers can design systems to meet specific application requirements. Some of the customized applications developed to integrate with the system include:
• Track Inspection System
• Signal Asset Tracking System
• Safety Audit
• Inventory and Maintenance
• Equipment Distribution and Management
• Car Accounting Systems
• Rail Yard Information Management

FEATURES/BENEFITS
• The System stores tag data including time, date, train direction and speed.
• It also responds to inquiries via modem and interfaces to scales, video systems and diagnostic and monitoring devices.
• Timely data to increase capacity, speed, automation and operational flexibility
• Arrival and departure data for signal and control operations

Products are now available for demanding RAIL RFID Applications
A range of readers and ID-tags that fulfill the tough requirements of the rail industry are now available.These products are used worldwide in railway applications which require identification and positioning at high speed, with high precision and in demanding environments.
We propose IPICO Inc. iRAIL technology for such Rail applications. Its patented IP-X Air Interface protocol enables the highest read rates involving multiple simultaneous tag reads in dynamic
environments, and in motion at high speed exceeding 260 km/hr. which regular UHF RFID tags and readers cannot achieve. This mission critical railway application is a perfect fit for the key differentiating strengths of IPICO.
For those operating a railway, information is the engine of efficiency as well as safety. The vastness of railways – cars, cargo, track, countries and conditions – presents a massive challenge
for management of rolling stock and rail operations. IPICO’s low cost, passive RF technology enables consistently accurate identification and control of assets in virtually any operating environment:
* At speeds of up to 260 KPH
* In challenging weather or extreme electromagnetic conditions
* In crowded rail yards
* In both online and off line modes of operation

Because IPICO overcomes limitations of conventional RFID, it opens a wide range of management solutions including:
Train Configuration and Capacity Management: Simply and accurately, identifying the location and status of every piece of rolling stock, making and breaking trains, and routing cars – saving huge amounts of time and labour.
Safety: Preventing trains from heading onto the wrong track at the wrong time, even in remote, offline environments. And preventing the wrong cargo from being loaded onto the wrong car – for example,loading coal onto a car that formerly held fuel.
Maintenance: Management of repairs and cleaning of each engine or car, with the history housed on the RFID tag as well as on a central database.

UHF RFID ICs UCODE G2XM G2XL

The UHF EPCglobal Generation 2 standard allows the commercialized provision of mass adoption of UHF RFID technology for passive smart tags and labels. Main fields of applications are supply chain management and logistics for worldwide use with special consideration of European, US and Chinese frequencies to ensure that operating distances of several meters can be realized.
The G2X is a dedicated chip for passive, intelligent tags and labels supporting the EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 UHF RFID standard. It is especially suited for applications where operating distances of several meters and high anti-collision rates are required.

The G2X is a product out of the NXP Semiconductors UCODE product family. The entire UCODE product family offers anti-collision and collision arbitration functionality. This allows a reader to simultaneously operate multiple labels/tags within its antenna field. A UCODE G2X based label/ tag requires no external power supply.

Its contact-less interface generates the power supply via the antenna circuit by propagative energy transmission from the interrogator (reader), while the system clock is generated by an on-chip oscillator. Data transmitted from interrogator to label/tag is demodulated by the interface, and it also modulates the interrogator’s electromagnetic field for data transmission from label/tag to interrogator.

A label/tag can be operated without the need for line of sight or battery, as long as it is connected to a dedicated antenna for the targeted frequency range. When the label/tag is within the interrogator’s operating range, the high-speed wireless interface allows data transmission in both directions.

In addition to the EPC specifications the G2X offers an integrated EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) feature and read protection of the memory content. On top of the specification of the G2XL the G2XM offers 512-bit of user memory.

UCODE G2XM G2XL Key features
512-bit user memory (G2XM only)
240-bit of EPC memory
64-bit tag identifier (TID) including 32-bit unique serial number
Memory read protection
EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) command
Calibrate command
32-bit kill password to permanently disable the tag
32-bit access password to allow a transition into the secured transmission state
Broad international operating frequency: from 840 MHz to 960 MHz
Long read/write ranges due to extremely low power design
Reliable operation of multiple tags due to advanced anti-collision
Forward link: 40-160 kbit/s
Return link: 40-640 kbit/s

UCODE G2XM G2XL Key benefits
High sensitivity provides long read range
Low Q-factor for consistent performance on different materials
Improved interference suppression for reliable operation in multi-reader environment
Large input capacitance for ease of assembly and high assembly yield
Highly advanced anti-collision resulting in highest identification speed
Reliable and robust RFID technology suitable for dense reader and noisy environments
Custom commands
EAS Alarm
Enables the UHF RFID tag to be used as EAS tag without the need for a backend data base.
Read Protect
Protects all memory content including CRC16 from unauthorized reading.
Calibrate
Activates permanent back-scatter in order to evaluate the tag-to-reader performance.
Supply chain management Item level tagging
Item level tagging
Asset management
Container identification
Pallet and case tracking
Product authentication
Outside above mentioned applications, please contact NXP Semiconductors for support.

Examples of UHF frequency allocations

UHF frequency in Australia
UHF Citizens Band: 476–477 MHz
Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz

UHF frequency in Canada
430–450 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 70 cm band)
470–806 MHz: Terrestrial television (with select channels in the 700 MHz band left vacant)
1452–1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting (L band)[4]
Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts

UHF frequency in United Kingdom
380–399.9 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) service for emergency use
430–440 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 70 cm band)
446.0–446.1;MHz: Private mobile radio
446.1–446.2;MHz: Digital private mobile radio
457–464 MHz: Scanning telemetry and telecontrol, assigned mostly to the water, gas, and electricity industries
606–614 MHz: Radio microphones and radio-astronomy
470–862 MHz: Previously used for analogue TV channels 21–69 (until 2012).
Currently channels 21–35, 37 and 39–60 are used for Freeview digital TV.[5] Channel 36 is used for radar; channel 38 was used for radio astronomy but has been cleared to allow PMSE users access on a licensed, shared basis.
791–862 MHz,[6] i.e. channels 61–69 inclusive were previously used for licensed and shared wireless microphones (channel 69 only), has since been allocated to 4G cellular communications.
863 – 865 MHz: Used for licence-exempt wireless systems.
863–870 MHz: Short range devices, LPWAN IoT devices such as NarrowBand-IoT.
870–960 MHz: Cellular communications (GSM900 – Vodafone and O2 only) including GSM-R and future TETRA
1240–1325 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 23 cm band)
1710–1880 MHz: 2G Cellular communications (GSM1800)
1880–1900 MHz: DECT cordless telephone
1900–1980 MHz: 3G cellular communications – mobile phone uplink
2110–2170 MHz: 3G cellular communications – base station downlink
2310–2450 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 13 cm band)

UHF frequency in United States
UHF channels are used for digital television broadcasting on both over the air channels and cable television channels. Since 1962, UHF channel tuners (at the time, channels 14-83) have been required in television receivers by the All-Channel Receiver Act. However, because of their more limited range, and because few sets could receive them until older sets were replaced, UHF channels were less desirable to broadcasters than VHF channels (and licenses sold for lower prices).
A complete list of US Television Frequency allocations can be found at North American Television Frequencies.
There is a considerable amount of lawful unlicensed activity (cordless phones, wireless networking) clustered around 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz, regulated under Title 47 CFR Part 15. These ISM bands – frequencies with a higher unlicensed power permitted for use originally by Industrial, Scientific, Medical apparatus – are now some of the most crowded in the spectrum because they are open to everyone. The 2.45 GHz frequency is the standard for use by microwave ovens, adjacent to the frequencies allocated for Bluetooth network devices.
The spectrum from 806 MHz to 890 MHz (UHF channels 70–83) was taken away from TV broadcast services in 1983, primarily for analog mobile telephony.
In 2009, as part of the transition from analog to digital over-the-air broadcast of television, the spectrum from 698 MHz to 806 MHz (UHF channels 52–69) was removed from TV broadcasting, making it available for other uses. Channel 55, for instance, was sold to Qualcomm for their MediaFLO service, which is resold under various mobile telephone network brands. Some US broadcasters had been offered incentives to vacate this channel early, permitting its immediate mobile use. The FCC’s scheduled auction for this newly available spectrum was completed in March 2008.
The FCC has allowed Americans to connect any device and any application to the 22 MHz of radio spectrum that people are calling the 700 MHz band. The FCC did not include a wholesale condition, which would have required the owner of the band to resell bandwidth to third parties who could then service the end user. Google argued that the wholesale requirement would have stimulated internet competition. As of 2007, 96% of the country’s broadband access was controlled by DSL and cable providers. A wholesale condition could have meant a third option for internet service.
225–420 MHz: Government use, including meteorology, military aviation, and federal two-way use
420–450 MHz: Government radiolocation and amateur radio (70 cm band)
433 MHz: Short range consumer devices including automotive, alarm systems, home automation, temperature sensors
450–470 MHz: UHF business band, General Mobile Radio Service, and Family Radio Service 2-way “walkie-talkies”, public safety
470–512 MHz: Low-band TV channels 14–20 (shared with public safety land mobile 2-way radio in 12 major metropolitan areas scheduled to relocate to 700 MHz band by 2023
512–608 MHz: Medium-band TV channels 21–36
608–614 MHz: Channel 37 used for radio astronomy and wireless medical telemetry
614–698 MHz: Mobile broadband shared with TV channels 38–51 auctioned in April 2017. TV stations will relocate by 2020.
617–652 MHz: Mobile broadband service downlink
652–663 MHz: Wireless microphones (higher priority) and unlicensed devices (lower priority)
663–698 MHz: Mobile broadband service uplink
698–806 MHz: Was auctioned in March 2008; bidders got full use after the transition to digital TV was completed on June 12, 2009 (formerly high-band UHF TV channels 52–69)
806–816 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 70–72)
817–824 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (mobile phone) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way)
824–849 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, terminal (mobile phone) (formerly TV channels 73–77)
849–851 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems (Gogo)
851–861 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 77–80)
862–869 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (base station) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way)
869–894 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, base station (formerly TV channels 80–83)
894–896 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems (Gogo)
902–928 MHz: ISM band, amateur radio (33 cm band), cordless phones and stereo, radio-frequency identification, datalinks
929–930 MHz: Pagers
931–932 MHz: Pagers
935–941 MHz: Commercial 2-way radio
941–960 MHz: Mixed studio-transmitter links, SCADA, other.
960–1215 MHz: Aeronautical radionavigation
1240–1300 MHz: Amateur radio (23 cm band)
1452–1492 MHz: Military use (therefore not available for Digital Audio Broadcasting, unlike Canada/Europe)
1525–1559 MHz: Skyterra downlink (Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use)
1559–1610 MHz: Radio Navigation Satellite Services (RNSS) Upper L-band
1563–1587 MHz: GPS L1 band
1593–1610 MHz: GLONASS G1 band
1959–1591 MHz: Galileo E1 band (overlapping with GPS L1)
1610–1660.5 MHz: Mobile Satellite Service
1610–1618: Globalstar uplink
1618–1626.5 MHz: Iridium uplink and downlink
1626.5–1660.5 MHz: Skyterra uplink (Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use[12])
1675–1695 MHz: Meteorological federal users
1695–1780 MHz: AWS mobile phone uplink (UL) operating band
1695–1755 MHz: AWS-3 blocks A1 and B1
1710–1755 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F
1755–1780 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J (various federal agencies transitioning by 2025)
1780–1850 MHz: exclusive federal use (Air Force satellite communications, Army’s cellular-like communication system, other agencies)
1850–1920 MHz: PCS mobile phone—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz
1920–1930 MHz: DECT cordless telephone
1930–2000 MHz: PCS base stations—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz
2000–2020 MHz: lower AWS-4 downlink (mobile broadband)
2020–2110 MHz: Cable Antenna Relay service, Local Television Transmission service, TV Broadcast Auxiliary service, Earth Exploration Satellite service
2110–2155 MHz: AWS mobile broadband downlink
2110–2155 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F
2155–2180 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J
2180–2200 MHz: upper AWS-4
2290–2300 MHz: NASA Deep Space Network
2300–2305 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, lower segment)
2305–2315 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service uplink blocks A and B
2315–2320 MHz: WCS block C (AT&T is pursuing smart grid deployment)
2320–2345 MHz: Satellite radio (Sirius and XM)
2345–2350 MHz: WCS block D (AT&T is pursuing smart grid deployment)
2350–2360 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service downlink blocks A and B
2360–2390 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems
2390–2395 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems (secondary deployment in a dozen of airports), amateur radio otherwise
2395–2400 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, upper segment)
2400–2483.5 MHz: ISM, IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n wireless LAN, IEEE 802.15.4-2006, Bluetooth, radio-controlled aircraft, microwave ovens, ZigBee
2483.5–2495 MHz: Globalstar downlink and Terrestrial Low Power Service suitable for TD-LTE small cells

Types of Memory in RFID Tags

Gen 2 RFID tags are comprised of an antenna and a chip (more accurately called an integrated circuit, or IC). The ICs for Gen 2 tags contain four types of memory:
* Reserved memory
* EPC memory
* TID memory
* User memory

When starting your application and selecting a tag, in order to know about how much memory is on each tag’s IC, you can check the specifications page on each tag’s data sheet. To learn the properties of each memory bank, we have outlined them below:

Reserved Memory:
This memory bank stores the kill password and the access password (each are 32 bits). The kill password permanently disables the tag (very rarely used), and the access password is set to lock and unlock the tag’s write capabilities. This memory bank is only writable if you want to specify a certain password. Most users do not use this memory area unless their applications contain sensitive data. It cannot store information besides the two codes.

EPC Memory:
This memory bank stores the EPC code, or the Electronic Product Code. It has a minimum of 96 bits of writable memory. The EPC memory is what is typically used in most applications if they only need 96 bits of memory. There are some tags that have the capability of allocating more bits to the EPC memory from the user memory. EPC memory is your first writable memory bank.

TID Memory:
This memory is used only to store the unique tag ID number by the manufacturer when the IC is manufactured. Typically, this memory portion cannot be changed.

User Memory:
If the user needs more memory than the EPC section has available, certain ICs have extended user memory which can store more information. When it comes to user memory, there is no standard in how many bits of memory are writable on each tag. Typically, the extended memory is no more than 512 bits, but there are some high memory tags with up to 4K or 8K bytes of memory. This is the second writable memory bank for Gen 2 ICs.

UHF RFID Tag IC-Alien Higgs-3

Higgs-3 is a highly integrated single chip UHF RFID Tag IC. The chip conforms to the EPCglobal Class 1 Gen 2 specifications and provides state-of-the-art performance for a broad range of UHF RFID tagging applications.

Higgs-3 is a highly integrated single chip UHF RFID Tag IC. The chip conforms to the EPCglobal Class 1 Gen 2 specifications and provides state-of-the-art performance for a broad range of UHF RFID tagging applications.

Higgs-3 operates at extremely low power levels yet still provides sufficient backscatter signal to read tags at extended range. It can also be programmed at low RF power and, in conjunction with a custom command – LoadImage – be programmed at high speed. Higgs-3 is implemented in a low cost CMOS process and uses proven and cost effective EEPROM technology.

Higgs-3 offers a flexible memory architecture that provides for the optimum allocation of EPC and User memory for different use cases such as legacy part numbering systems and service history. User memory can also be read and or write locked on 64-bit boundaries, supporting a variety of of public/private usage models.

The IC also features a factory programmed 64-bit serial number that cannot be altered. In conjunction with the EPC code, this provides a unique “fingerprint” for the tagged item.

Alien Higgs-3 RFID IC Features
* Meets EPCglobal Gen2 (V 1.2.0) as well as ISO/IEC 18000-6C
* Worldwide operation in the RFID UHF bands (860-960 MHz)
* 800-Bits of Nonvolatile Memory
– 96-EPC Bits, extensible to 480 Bits
– 512 User Bits
– 64 Bit Unique TID
– 32 Bit Access and 32 bit Kill Passwords
* Pre-Programmed with a unique, unalterable 64-bit serial number
* User Memory can be Block Perma-Locked as well as read password protected in 64 Bit Blocks
* Supports all Mandatory and Optional Commands including Item Level Commands
* Custom Commands for high speed programming; 30 tags per second for the 96-bit EPC number
* Low power operation for both read and program
* Exceptional operating range, up to 10m with appropriate antenna

Alien Higgs-3 RFID IC Applications
* Supply Chain Management
* Distribution Logistics
* Product Authentication
* Asset Inventory and Tracking
* Baggage Handling and Tracking
* Item Level Tagging

How does RFID benefit Libraries?

RFID frees up staff time and allows them to interact more with library visitors, develop new services and benefit from faster, smarter transactions. Time and effort is saved through faster, easier issuing, returning and tagging of items. RFID provides improved security systems and flexibility in stock management and inventory control, data collection and trend analysis.

How does RFID improve service to library visitors?
RFID allows you to deliver services smarter, faster and in the way visitors want to receive them. RFID speeds up processing at the issues desk and self service systems can eliminate queues or long waiting times all together. RFID can also provide the means to offer longer opening hours, enhanced customer services and improved stock availability.

RFID Benefits Include:
Faster issuing

Item IDs are stored and read wirelessly from the RFID tag applied to each library item
The tags on multiple items can be read at one time, then automatically issued from your library management software and security disabled… all without the use of a barcode scanner.
Faster returns

The tags on multiple items can be read at one time, then automatically returned into library stock and the security enabled… all without the use of a barcode scanner.
Automatic return shutes and sorting machines allow for an effective 24/7 returns service to customers and a great time saving feature for staff.
Less Manual Labour

By not having to open books or scan barcodes saves staff a lot of physical effort over the course of the day.
Appling RFID tags to items is much easier and quicker than EM security strips.
Customer Self-service

RFID simplifies the self-service process improving convenience and service to library visitors.
Improved Security

RFID security gates don’t give false alarms.
RFID gates have detection rates of up to 95% making them a greater deterent to costly book loss.
RFID gates cover wider entrances with single spans of up to 1.6 metres per aisle.
Gateviewer software shows what items alarmed the security gates and when, giving a better chance of tracking down missing items.
Inventory Scanning

Scan your library with RFID Inventory Wand to find missing items or to perform a stock take in a fraction of the time.

Alien Technology

Alien Technology provides UHF Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) products and services to customers in retail, consumer goods, manufacturing, defense, transportation and logistics, pharmaceuticals and other industries. Organizations use Alien’s RFID products and services to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and security of their supply chains, logistics and asset tracking operations. Alien’s products include RFID tags, RFID readers and related training and professional services. Alien’s patented Fluidic Self Assembly (FSA) technology and related proprietary manufacturing processes are designed to enable the manufacture of high volume, low cost RFID tags.

Alien was founded in l994. Alien’s facilities include: its corporate headquarters in Morgan Hill, CA; RFID tag manufacturing facility in Fargo, ND; the Alien RFID Solutions Center in the Dayton, Ohio area, Quatrotec’s offices at the San Francisco International Airport (SFO); and its sales offices in the US, Europe and Asia. Alien is a member of EPCGlobal.

RFID IDENTIFICATORS

RFID Identificators may be grouped according to various criteria:
1. According to shape:
Card (ISO 7816-1), size 86 x 54 x 0.76 mm;
Clamshell card, size 86 x 54 x 1.8 mm;
Keyring – different shapes and sizes;
Label;
Watch;
Glass capsule, implanted in animals;
Animal ear mark;
UHF RFID tags
Nail and etc.

2. According to power supply:
Passive tags – tags without an on-board power source (battery). The simple design of these tags makes them very durable – they have a service life of about ten years, and resistant to external conditions (temperature, humidity, chemicals, etc.). Their price is very affordable compared to the other types of identificators. One drawback is the distance for reading.
Active tags – tags with an on-board power source. This allows a greater reading distance, an option to incorporate a chip and the performance of additional functions: temperature measurement, monitoring of set parameters, etc.
Battery-assisted passive tags with an on-board power source like in the active tags. The battery improves the reading distance. Some of these tags are not activated until alerted by the reader, thus saving the battery life.

3. According to the possibility for reading and writing:
Read-only – tags having a factory-assigned serial number which may not be changed. Read-only tags are very common on account of their cheap price and ease of use.
Write Once Read Many (WORM) – the writing is done at the first use of the identificator. WORM tags have a good price/productivity ratio and are widely used in business applications.
Read Write (RW) tags where data can be written and re-written many times (from 10 to 100,000 and even more). When active RW tags are used, the writing can be done by both the reader and also by the tag itself. RW tags may be used in many different applications but their high price (for the time being) makes them less affordable.