RFID tags for production processes in the automotive industry

In the automotive industry, the use of RFID tags and RFID reading and writing devices is growing day by day at every step of the production processes, because it is the most reliable way to identify the parts that correspond to each car configured by each customer.

An RFID system can cover every identification need of every plant task from metal plates workshop until the car leaves the factory. The majority of personalizations of a car materialize during assembly, so there are many versions of the same model in the production line. With RFID solutions, the identification of each piece and each car is accurate and updated in real time.

The RFID technology is not only reliable and fast, but it is also very resistant to the roughness of manufacturing, such as high temperatures or corrosive substances. The RFID tags that are used in this sort of industrial implementations are single-use labels which are usually destroyed during or at the end of the manufacturing process.

RFID tags suitable for automotive production processes

On the one hand, there are RFID tags that will work on metal (which interferes with the operation of radio frequency waves), and on the other, those that will be on hard plastics, glass and other materials.

In addition, the materials in which the inlay should be (RFID antenna with a chip inserted on a substrate) must be resistant to the appropriate temperatures and to the substances used in manufacturing.

The RFID tags that work on metal adhere to the piece and are usually on a material that separates the metal antenna from one to two millimetres, so that it does not interfere with the performance of the RFID tag. Another solution to label with RFID metal parts is to use flanges, so that the label is hung and not attached to the sheet, but this solution is not always possible due to issues such as the type of handling of the parts.

As for the RFID tags that are going to adhere to hard plastic parts, these are adhesive RFID tags that do not need that distance between the piece and the antenna.

If you need more information about RFID tags for production processes please contact us:
OPP IOT Technologies CO., LTD.
Address: 2104 Room SANDI International Finance Centre,249# MingXin Street LongQiao,ChengXiang Putian City Fujian, P.R, China
P.C: 351100
Tel: (00865942790031
E-mail: info@oppiot.com
WhatsApp: +86 180 3034 2267
Website:http://www.oppiot.com

Passive RFID Systems

In passive RFID systems the reader and reader antenna send a radio signal to the tag. The RFID tag then uses the transmitted signal to power on, and reflect energy back to the reader.

Passive RFID systems can operate in the low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) or ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio bands. As passive system ranges are limited by the power of the tag’s backscatter (the radio signal reflected from the tag back to the reader), they are typically less than 10 m. Because passive tags do not require a power source or transmitter, and only require a tag chip and antenna, they are cheaper, smaller, and easier to manufacture than active tags.

Passive tags can be packaged in many different ways, depending on the specific RFID application requirements. For instance, they may be mounted on a substrate, or sandwiched between an adhesive layer and a paper label to create smart RFID labels. Passive tags may also be embedded in a variety of devices or packages to make the tag resistant to extreme temperatures or harsh chemicals.

Industrial RFID UHF metal tag OPP4010 with crazy performance

OPP IOT are committed to develop and research excellent RFID UHF meral tag for industry application.
OPP4010 is high level metallic UHF tag and crazy performance tag,size 40x10mmxT2.7mm,it equipped with Alien Higgs-m chip(EPC 96bits can up to 480bits,USER 512bits,TID64bits) and include frequency ETSI(865-868MHz) and FCC (902-925MHz) to meet with different counties frequency request.
Read distance based on reader,450cm can ahieved by fixed reader and 300cm by handheld reader.Tag mainly used outdoor application,water proof and high temeprature.
Our all tags are meet with CE,RoHs,Reach and ATEX certification.

Functional Specififi cations:
RFID Protocol: EPC Class1 Gen2, ISO18000-6C
Frequency: (US) 902-928MHz, (EU) 865-868MHz
IC type: Alien Higgs-3
Memory: EPC 96bits (Up to 480bits) , USER 512bits, TID64bits
Write Cycles: 100,000times
Functionality: Read/write
Data Retention: Up to 50 Years
Applicable Surface: Metal Surfaces
Read Range :
(Fix Reader:ThingMagic FU-M6-E, 36dBm/4W)
450cm – (US) 902-928MHz, on metal
420cm – (EU) 865-868MHz, on metal
Read Range :
(Handheld Reader: OP9908, R2000, 33dBm/2W)
300cm – (US) 902-928MHz, on metal
280cm – (EU) 865-868MHz, on metal
Warranty: 1 Year
Physical Specififi cation:
Size: 40x10mm, (Hole: D3mmx2)
Thickness: 2.1mm without IC bump, 2.7mm with IC bump
Material: FR4 (PCB)
Colour: Black (Red, Blue, Green, White)
Mounting Methods: Adhesive, Screw
Weight: 2.0g

More info view http://www.oppiot.com/uhf-metal-tags-dolphin-series-opp4010.html

RFID Theory

The RFID system typically consists of a tag made up of a microchip with an antenna, and an interrogator (reader), which is embedded with a single chip processor and an antenna.
The purpose of an RFID system is to enable data to be transmitted by a tag, which is read by an RFID reader and processed according to the needs of an application. Moreover, the data transmitted by the tag may provide identification or location information, or specifics about the product, for example, price, color, date code, etc. Also, RFID systems can be employed for tracking objects- as an invasion of privacy.

In short, RFID tags can carry data and serve as data transfer agents; a reader in range of the tag’s signal will receive the data, decrypt it, and forward it to the host computer for stores all collected data within a database.

RFID in Industrial Environments

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology is indispensable in many industrial environments. If you operate in a challenging environment and need fast, accurate, real time data, talk to OPP IOT specialists about an RFID solution for tracking and managing your inventory, whether consumables or fixed assets.

Perhaps you use a manual system or barcode technology for inventory management but think you can do better. Absolutely! A typical RFID package consists of:
* RFID tags which can store up to 100 times the data of barcodes, ensuring you can keep track of all the details you want about your inventory such as lot and serial number, size, manufacturer, vendor, expiry date, user, location on production line and anything else you might want to know
* RFID printer which can be desk top or mobile and print a range of tags
* RFID reader which can be active or passive, fixed or mobile, incorporated into a handheld computer or standalone, depending on your particular operational needs

RFID Features
You might be interested in some or all of these RFID system features:
* High density of data storage on tags
* Range of options for HF and UHF printers
* High number of tags that can be read at any one time even in a busy environment with various production lines close to each other
* Readers with diagnostic function to detect problems with recording and transmission of data
* Flexibility according to the volume and movement of inventory
* Capacity to function in harsh environments, inside or outdoors, including extreme temperatures(OPP4215 RFID tags can work well from 280°С for 50 minutes, 250°С for 150minutes test) and exposure to dust, dirt and chemicals
* Capacity to tracking items being customized on a production line

RFID Benefits
The benefits of RFID inventory technology are immediately obvious, including:
* Accuracy and speed of data capture and transmission, no matter what the industrial environment
* Accurate, real time inventory counts result in eliminating stock shortages and over supply and preventing theft
* Increased consistent productivity
* Automated process means reduced opportunity for human intervention and error
* Information for performance management and quality control

Our team of specialists can work with you to translate these features and benefits into increased customer satisfaction and profitability for your operation.
OPP IOT Technologies CO., LTD.
Address:2104 Room SANDI International Finance Centre,249# MingXin Street
LongQiao,ChengXiang Putian City Fujian, P.R, China
P.C: 351100
Tel: (0086)594 2790031
Fax: (0086)594 2790185
E-mail:info@oppiot.com
oppiotrfid@gmail.com
WhatsApp: +86 180 3034 2267

OPP IOT describe a OPP9020 UHF tag for metal objects and Metal surface

metal mount UHF tags
metal mount UHF tags

When you’re mounting UHF RFID tags on metal surfaces or metal Objects, you should be aware that if you use non metal mount UHF tags, your system will not function as desired as the metal will detune any passive UHF RFID tag that is not designed to be placed on metal.

Using OPP IOT Metal-mount UHF RFID tags (OPP9020) that are specifically calibrated to the materials you need to track makes reading, tracking, and inventorying them easier and provides for greater read range(Up to 10.8  meter reading range).

Metal mount UHF RFID tags are typically rugged, difficult to damage, and easy to weld, screw or otherwise attach.

Ultra high frequency CREATES THE MOST VALUE

Ultra high frequency technology is the fastest growing segment on the RFID market. The majority of new RFID projects are using UHF, as opposed to HF or LF systems. To date, UHF technology has over 20 billion connected items providing real-time visibility and data to a myriad of everyday items. UHF systems are known for generating long read ranges, up to twelve meters (forty feet), whereas HF systems carry a much shorter read range of approximately one meter (three feet). UHF allows for a faster data transfer rate, up to 20 times the range and speed of HF systems. This enables quicker transaction capture times and faster data processing.

As UHF solidifies its position as the global standard and preferred RFID technology across vertical markets, tag prices continue to drop. In 2017, UHF RFID tags cost approximately $.05 to $.15 per tag, whereas HF tags range from $.50 to $2.00 per tag.

Using a UHF RFID system eliminates the need for manual processes, thus increasing inventory visibility and automating workflows. There are countless benefits to incorporating UHF RFID systems into healthcare and life science markets, including:
* Gain real-time visibility of inventory
* Automate inventory tracking and workflows
* Prevent use of expired or recalled products
* Remotely monitor temperature and inventory alerts
* Reduce shrinkage and prevent inventory stock-outs
* Secure access to specified areas or products
* Improve overall business operations

UHF RFID Frequency Regulations

UHF RFID Frequencies vary in each country based on each country’s regulations. Each country adopts an UHF RFID frequency that best fits within that country. These frequency ranges and standards were first put in place by a group of organizations – the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), ASTM International, and EPC Global. These frequency bands are now known as the ISM bands, or the Industrial Scientific and Medical Bands.

UHF RFID Technology uses two main frequency ranges — 902-928 MHz and 865-868 MHz; however, a few countries have adopted either multiple bands or unique ranges on the ISM standard. One such country is Brazil who has adopted two uncommon frequency ranges within the 902-928 MHz range — one being 902-907.5 MHz and the other being 915-928 MHz. In order for UHF RFID equipment to be in compliance with Brazil’s regulations, the RFID reader needs to be set to broadcast within Brazil’s specific frequency ranges. This means that if you bring a UHF RFID reader to Brazil and operate using the full 902-928 MHz frequency range, you are in violation of local governmental regulations.

Frequency ranges also are subject to change. Japan, who previously used two very unique frequency ranges — 952-956.4 MHz and 952-957.6 MHz — has now changed to a frequency range within the 902-928 MHz range. Japan’s frequency range is currently 916.7-920.9 MHz (although 925-957.6 MHz will still be effective until March 31, 2018).

The map above shows the most common UHF frequencies for each country, but some countries have not adopted any frequency range yet. An example of a country that has not adopted a set frequency range would be Egypt who is currently working on getting that into place (as of the time of this article’s original published date).

RFID for Railways

In the US, some 40 % of all intercity freight goes by rail, including 67 % of the coal used by electric utilities to produce power. According to the American Association of Railways, in the US, railroads transport 1.7 million carloads of hazmat each year.
A RFID Railway system is available from FALKEN Secure Networks in a number of configurations designed to economically meet a full range of service requirements. Reader systems provide automated tracking of railcars via RFID tags, Readers and integrated Middleware, and make railcar and locomotive identification and location information available to railroads for asset management and other purposes.
• Traffic and Passenger Information: The system provides accurate and reliable information about where a train is located. This real-time information is forwarded to IT systems and used to
update the passenger information displays at stations and terminals.
• Operation and Maintenance: Precise information about the configuration of wagons within a train can be provided automatically by the system. This information can be integrated with other
systems such as track inspection systems, so that the recorded information can be automatically matched to the actual wagon, thus eliminating errors.
• Location of the Train: The System with the help of the reader determines the location of the train by reading the tag identity as the train passes over the tag at speed. This location data is
transferred to the onboard system and can be used to update passenger information automatically
• Controlling and Positioning of Trains: Some onboard systems require a precise position of the train, for example to control stopping positions. The reader accurately reports
the position when the train passes over an ID-tag. An alternative configuration would be positioning readers on poles at trackside and reading the tagged wagons as they pass. If tags are consistently positioned, for example, at the mid-point of the train, the identification of the tag would be correlated with the length of the wagon and exact speed could be determined in the software application.
In combination with requirements, new applications and various report formats can be rapidly prototyped and deployed. In addition to the standard configuration, our team of experienced engineers can design systems to meet specific application requirements. Some of the customized applications developed to integrate with the system include:
• Track Inspection System
• Signal Asset Tracking System
• Safety Audit
• Inventory and Maintenance
• Equipment Distribution and Management
• Car Accounting Systems
• Rail Yard Information Management

FEATURES/BENEFITS
• The System stores tag data including time, date, train direction and speed.
• It also responds to inquiries via modem and interfaces to scales, video systems and diagnostic and monitoring devices.
• Timely data to increase capacity, speed, automation and operational flexibility
• Arrival and departure data for signal and control operations

Products are now available for demanding RAIL RFID Applications
A range of readers and ID-tags that fulfill the tough requirements of the rail industry are now available.These products are used worldwide in railway applications which require identification and positioning at high speed, with high precision and in demanding environments.
We propose IPICO Inc. iRAIL technology for such Rail applications. Its patented IP-X Air Interface protocol enables the highest read rates involving multiple simultaneous tag reads in dynamic
environments, and in motion at high speed exceeding 260 km/hr. which regular UHF RFID tags and readers cannot achieve. This mission critical railway application is a perfect fit for the key differentiating strengths of IPICO.
For those operating a railway, information is the engine of efficiency as well as safety. The vastness of railways – cars, cargo, track, countries and conditions – presents a massive challenge
for management of rolling stock and rail operations. IPICO’s low cost, passive RF technology enables consistently accurate identification and control of assets in virtually any operating environment:
* At speeds of up to 260 KPH
* In challenging weather or extreme electromagnetic conditions
* In crowded rail yards
* In both online and off line modes of operation

Because IPICO overcomes limitations of conventional RFID, it opens a wide range of management solutions including:
Train Configuration and Capacity Management: Simply and accurately, identifying the location and status of every piece of rolling stock, making and breaking trains, and routing cars – saving huge amounts of time and labour.
Safety: Preventing trains from heading onto the wrong track at the wrong time, even in remote, offline environments. And preventing the wrong cargo from being loaded onto the wrong car – for example,loading coal onto a car that formerly held fuel.
Maintenance: Management of repairs and cleaning of each engine or car, with the history housed on the RFID tag as well as on a central database.

UHF RFID ICs UCODE G2XM G2XL

The UHF EPCglobal Generation 2 standard allows the commercialized provision of mass adoption of UHF RFID technology for passive smart tags and labels. Main fields of applications are supply chain management and logistics for worldwide use with special consideration of European, US and Chinese frequencies to ensure that operating distances of several meters can be realized.
The G2X is a dedicated chip for passive, intelligent tags and labels supporting the EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 UHF RFID standard. It is especially suited for applications where operating distances of several meters and high anti-collision rates are required.

The G2X is a product out of the NXP Semiconductors UCODE product family. The entire UCODE product family offers anti-collision and collision arbitration functionality. This allows a reader to simultaneously operate multiple labels/tags within its antenna field. A UCODE G2X based label/ tag requires no external power supply.

Its contact-less interface generates the power supply via the antenna circuit by propagative energy transmission from the interrogator (reader), while the system clock is generated by an on-chip oscillator. Data transmitted from interrogator to label/tag is demodulated by the interface, and it also modulates the interrogator’s electromagnetic field for data transmission from label/tag to interrogator.

A label/tag can be operated without the need for line of sight or battery, as long as it is connected to a dedicated antenna for the targeted frequency range. When the label/tag is within the interrogator’s operating range, the high-speed wireless interface allows data transmission in both directions.

In addition to the EPC specifications the G2X offers an integrated EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) feature and read protection of the memory content. On top of the specification of the G2XL the G2XM offers 512-bit of user memory.

UCODE G2XM G2XL Key features
512-bit user memory (G2XM only)
240-bit of EPC memory
64-bit tag identifier (TID) including 32-bit unique serial number
Memory read protection
EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) command
Calibrate command
32-bit kill password to permanently disable the tag
32-bit access password to allow a transition into the secured transmission state
Broad international operating frequency: from 840 MHz to 960 MHz
Long read/write ranges due to extremely low power design
Reliable operation of multiple tags due to advanced anti-collision
Forward link: 40-160 kbit/s
Return link: 40-640 kbit/s

UCODE G2XM G2XL Key benefits
High sensitivity provides long read range
Low Q-factor for consistent performance on different materials
Improved interference suppression for reliable operation in multi-reader environment
Large input capacitance for ease of assembly and high assembly yield
Highly advanced anti-collision resulting in highest identification speed
Reliable and robust RFID technology suitable for dense reader and noisy environments
Custom commands
EAS Alarm
Enables the UHF RFID tag to be used as EAS tag without the need for a backend data base.
Read Protect
Protects all memory content including CRC16 from unauthorized reading.
Calibrate
Activates permanent back-scatter in order to evaluate the tag-to-reader performance.
Supply chain management Item level tagging
Item level tagging
Asset management
Container identification
Pallet and case tracking
Product authentication
Outside above mentioned applications, please contact NXP Semiconductors for support.