Examples of UHF frequency allocations

UHF frequency in Australia
UHF Citizens Band: 476–477 MHz
Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz

UHF frequency in Canada
430–450 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 70 cm band)
470–806 MHz: Terrestrial television (with select channels in the 700 MHz band left vacant)
1452–1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting (L band)[4]
Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts

UHF frequency in United Kingdom
380–399.9 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) service for emergency use
430–440 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 70 cm band)
446.0–446.1;MHz: Private mobile radio
446.1–446.2;MHz: Digital private mobile radio
457–464 MHz: Scanning telemetry and telecontrol, assigned mostly to the water, gas, and electricity industries
606–614 MHz: Radio microphones and radio-astronomy
470–862 MHz: Previously used for analogue TV channels 21–69 (until 2012).
Currently channels 21–35, 37 and 39–60 are used for Freeview digital TV.[5] Channel 36 is used for radar; channel 38 was used for radio astronomy but has been cleared to allow PMSE users access on a licensed, shared basis.
791–862 MHz,[6] i.e. channels 61–69 inclusive were previously used for licensed and shared wireless microphones (channel 69 only), has since been allocated to 4G cellular communications.
863 – 865 MHz: Used for licence-exempt wireless systems.
863–870 MHz: Short range devices, LPWAN IoT devices such as NarrowBand-IoT.
870–960 MHz: Cellular communications (GSM900 – Vodafone and O2 only) including GSM-R and future TETRA
1240–1325 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 23 cm band)
1710–1880 MHz: 2G Cellular communications (GSM1800)
1880–1900 MHz: DECT cordless telephone
1900–1980 MHz: 3G cellular communications – mobile phone uplink
2110–2170 MHz: 3G cellular communications – base station downlink
2310–2450 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 13 cm band)

UHF frequency in United States
UHF channels are used for digital television broadcasting on both over the air channels and cable television channels. Since 1962, UHF channel tuners (at the time, channels 14-83) have been required in television receivers by the All-Channel Receiver Act. However, because of their more limited range, and because few sets could receive them until older sets were replaced, UHF channels were less desirable to broadcasters than VHF channels (and licenses sold for lower prices).
A complete list of US Television Frequency allocations can be found at North American Television Frequencies.
There is a considerable amount of lawful unlicensed activity (cordless phones, wireless networking) clustered around 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz, regulated under Title 47 CFR Part 15. These ISM bands – frequencies with a higher unlicensed power permitted for use originally by Industrial, Scientific, Medical apparatus – are now some of the most crowded in the spectrum because they are open to everyone. The 2.45 GHz frequency is the standard for use by microwave ovens, adjacent to the frequencies allocated for Bluetooth network devices.
The spectrum from 806 MHz to 890 MHz (UHF channels 70–83) was taken away from TV broadcast services in 1983, primarily for analog mobile telephony.
In 2009, as part of the transition from analog to digital over-the-air broadcast of television, the spectrum from 698 MHz to 806 MHz (UHF channels 52–69) was removed from TV broadcasting, making it available for other uses. Channel 55, for instance, was sold to Qualcomm for their MediaFLO service, which is resold under various mobile telephone network brands. Some US broadcasters had been offered incentives to vacate this channel early, permitting its immediate mobile use. The FCC’s scheduled auction for this newly available spectrum was completed in March 2008.
The FCC has allowed Americans to connect any device and any application to the 22 MHz of radio spectrum that people are calling the 700 MHz band. The FCC did not include a wholesale condition, which would have required the owner of the band to resell bandwidth to third parties who could then service the end user. Google argued that the wholesale requirement would have stimulated internet competition. As of 2007, 96% of the country’s broadband access was controlled by DSL and cable providers. A wholesale condition could have meant a third option for internet service.
225–420 MHz: Government use, including meteorology, military aviation, and federal two-way use
420–450 MHz: Government radiolocation and amateur radio (70 cm band)
433 MHz: Short range consumer devices including automotive, alarm systems, home automation, temperature sensors
450–470 MHz: UHF business band, General Mobile Radio Service, and Family Radio Service 2-way “walkie-talkies”, public safety
470–512 MHz: Low-band TV channels 14–20 (shared with public safety land mobile 2-way radio in 12 major metropolitan areas scheduled to relocate to 700 MHz band by 2023
512–608 MHz: Medium-band TV channels 21–36
608–614 MHz: Channel 37 used for radio astronomy and wireless medical telemetry
614–698 MHz: Mobile broadband shared with TV channels 38–51 auctioned in April 2017. TV stations will relocate by 2020.
617–652 MHz: Mobile broadband service downlink
652–663 MHz: Wireless microphones (higher priority) and unlicensed devices (lower priority)
663–698 MHz: Mobile broadband service uplink
698–806 MHz: Was auctioned in March 2008; bidders got full use after the transition to digital TV was completed on June 12, 2009 (formerly high-band UHF TV channels 52–69)
806–816 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 70–72)
817–824 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (mobile phone) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way)
824–849 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, terminal (mobile phone) (formerly TV channels 73–77)
849–851 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems (Gogo)
851–861 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 77–80)
862–869 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (base station) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way)
869–894 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, base station (formerly TV channels 80–83)
894–896 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems (Gogo)
902–928 MHz: ISM band, amateur radio (33 cm band), cordless phones and stereo, radio-frequency identification, datalinks
929–930 MHz: Pagers
931–932 MHz: Pagers
935–941 MHz: Commercial 2-way radio
941–960 MHz: Mixed studio-transmitter links, SCADA, other.
960–1215 MHz: Aeronautical radionavigation
1240–1300 MHz: Amateur radio (23 cm band)
1452–1492 MHz: Military use (therefore not available for Digital Audio Broadcasting, unlike Canada/Europe)
1525–1559 MHz: Skyterra downlink (Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use)
1559–1610 MHz: Radio Navigation Satellite Services (RNSS) Upper L-band
1563–1587 MHz: GPS L1 band
1593–1610 MHz: GLONASS G1 band
1959–1591 MHz: Galileo E1 band (overlapping with GPS L1)
1610–1660.5 MHz: Mobile Satellite Service
1610–1618: Globalstar uplink
1618–1626.5 MHz: Iridium uplink and downlink
1626.5–1660.5 MHz: Skyterra uplink (Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use[12])
1675–1695 MHz: Meteorological federal users
1695–1780 MHz: AWS mobile phone uplink (UL) operating band
1695–1755 MHz: AWS-3 blocks A1 and B1
1710–1755 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F
1755–1780 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J (various federal agencies transitioning by 2025)
1780–1850 MHz: exclusive federal use (Air Force satellite communications, Army’s cellular-like communication system, other agencies)
1850–1920 MHz: PCS mobile phone—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz
1920–1930 MHz: DECT cordless telephone
1930–2000 MHz: PCS base stations—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz
2000–2020 MHz: lower AWS-4 downlink (mobile broadband)
2020–2110 MHz: Cable Antenna Relay service, Local Television Transmission service, TV Broadcast Auxiliary service, Earth Exploration Satellite service
2110–2155 MHz: AWS mobile broadband downlink
2110–2155 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F
2155–2180 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J
2180–2200 MHz: upper AWS-4
2290–2300 MHz: NASA Deep Space Network
2300–2305 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, lower segment)
2305–2315 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service uplink blocks A and B
2315–2320 MHz: WCS block C (AT&T is pursuing smart grid deployment)
2320–2345 MHz: Satellite radio (Sirius and XM)
2345–2350 MHz: WCS block D (AT&T is pursuing smart grid deployment)
2350–2360 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service downlink blocks A and B
2360–2390 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems
2390–2395 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems (secondary deployment in a dozen of airports), amateur radio otherwise
2395–2400 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, upper segment)
2400–2483.5 MHz: ISM, IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n wireless LAN, IEEE 802.15.4-2006, Bluetooth, radio-controlled aircraft, microwave ovens, ZigBee
2483.5–2495 MHz: Globalstar downlink and Terrestrial Low Power Service suitable for TD-LTE small cells

Types of Memory in RFID Tags

Gen 2 RFID tags are comprised of an antenna and a chip (more accurately called an integrated circuit, or IC). The ICs for Gen 2 tags contain four types of memory:
* Reserved memory
* EPC memory
* TID memory
* User memory

When starting your application and selecting a tag, in order to know about how much memory is on each tag’s IC, you can check the specifications page on each tag’s data sheet. To learn the properties of each memory bank, we have outlined them below:

Reserved Memory:
This memory bank stores the kill password and the access password (each are 32 bits). The kill password permanently disables the tag (very rarely used), and the access password is set to lock and unlock the tag’s write capabilities. This memory bank is only writable if you want to specify a certain password. Most users do not use this memory area unless their applications contain sensitive data. It cannot store information besides the two codes.

EPC Memory:
This memory bank stores the EPC code, or the Electronic Product Code. It has a minimum of 96 bits of writable memory. The EPC memory is what is typically used in most applications if they only need 96 bits of memory. There are some tags that have the capability of allocating more bits to the EPC memory from the user memory. EPC memory is your first writable memory bank.

TID Memory:
This memory is used only to store the unique tag ID number by the manufacturer when the IC is manufactured. Typically, this memory portion cannot be changed.

User Memory:
If the user needs more memory than the EPC section has available, certain ICs have extended user memory which can store more information. When it comes to user memory, there is no standard in how many bits of memory are writable on each tag. Typically, the extended memory is no more than 512 bits, but there are some high memory tags with up to 4K or 8K bytes of memory. This is the second writable memory bank for Gen 2 ICs.

UHF RFID Tag IC-Alien Higgs-3

Higgs-3 is a highly integrated single chip UHF RFID Tag IC. The chip conforms to the EPCglobal Class 1 Gen 2 specifications and provides state-of-the-art performance for a broad range of UHF RFID tagging applications.

Higgs-3 is a highly integrated single chip UHF RFID Tag IC. The chip conforms to the EPCglobal Class 1 Gen 2 specifications and provides state-of-the-art performance for a broad range of UHF RFID tagging applications.

Higgs-3 operates at extremely low power levels yet still provides sufficient backscatter signal to read tags at extended range. It can also be programmed at low RF power and, in conjunction with a custom command – LoadImage – be programmed at high speed. Higgs-3 is implemented in a low cost CMOS process and uses proven and cost effective EEPROM technology.

Higgs-3 offers a flexible memory architecture that provides for the optimum allocation of EPC and User memory for different use cases such as legacy part numbering systems and service history. User memory can also be read and or write locked on 64-bit boundaries, supporting a variety of of public/private usage models.

The IC also features a factory programmed 64-bit serial number that cannot be altered. In conjunction with the EPC code, this provides a unique “fingerprint” for the tagged item.

Alien Higgs-3 RFID IC Features
* Meets EPCglobal Gen2 (V 1.2.0) as well as ISO/IEC 18000-6C
* Worldwide operation in the RFID UHF bands (860-960 MHz)
* 800-Bits of Nonvolatile Memory
– 96-EPC Bits, extensible to 480 Bits
– 512 User Bits
– 64 Bit Unique TID
– 32 Bit Access and 32 bit Kill Passwords
* Pre-Programmed with a unique, unalterable 64-bit serial number
* User Memory can be Block Perma-Locked as well as read password protected in 64 Bit Blocks
* Supports all Mandatory and Optional Commands including Item Level Commands
* Custom Commands for high speed programming; 30 tags per second for the 96-bit EPC number
* Low power operation for both read and program
* Exceptional operating range, up to 10m with appropriate antenna

Alien Higgs-3 RFID IC Applications
* Supply Chain Management
* Distribution Logistics
* Product Authentication
* Asset Inventory and Tracking
* Baggage Handling and Tracking
* Item Level Tagging

How does RFID benefit Libraries?

RFID frees up staff time and allows them to interact more with library visitors, develop new services and benefit from faster, smarter transactions. Time and effort is saved through faster, easier issuing, returning and tagging of items. RFID provides improved security systems and flexibility in stock management and inventory control, data collection and trend analysis.

How does RFID improve service to library visitors?
RFID allows you to deliver services smarter, faster and in the way visitors want to receive them. RFID speeds up processing at the issues desk and self service systems can eliminate queues or long waiting times all together. RFID can also provide the means to offer longer opening hours, enhanced customer services and improved stock availability.

RFID Benefits Include:
Faster issuing

Item IDs are stored and read wirelessly from the RFID tag applied to each library item
The tags on multiple items can be read at one time, then automatically issued from your library management software and security disabled… all without the use of a barcode scanner.
Faster returns

The tags on multiple items can be read at one time, then automatically returned into library stock and the security enabled… all without the use of a barcode scanner.
Automatic return shutes and sorting machines allow for an effective 24/7 returns service to customers and a great time saving feature for staff.
Less Manual Labour

By not having to open books or scan barcodes saves staff a lot of physical effort over the course of the day.
Appling RFID tags to items is much easier and quicker than EM security strips.
Customer Self-service

RFID simplifies the self-service process improving convenience and service to library visitors.
Improved Security

RFID security gates don’t give false alarms.
RFID gates have detection rates of up to 95% making them a greater deterent to costly book loss.
RFID gates cover wider entrances with single spans of up to 1.6 metres per aisle.
Gateviewer software shows what items alarmed the security gates and when, giving a better chance of tracking down missing items.
Inventory Scanning

Scan your library with RFID Inventory Wand to find missing items or to perform a stock take in a fraction of the time.

Alien Technology

Alien Technology provides UHF Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) products and services to customers in retail, consumer goods, manufacturing, defense, transportation and logistics, pharmaceuticals and other industries. Organizations use Alien’s RFID products and services to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and security of their supply chains, logistics and asset tracking operations. Alien’s products include RFID tags, RFID readers and related training and professional services. Alien’s patented Fluidic Self Assembly (FSA) technology and related proprietary manufacturing processes are designed to enable the manufacture of high volume, low cost RFID tags.

Alien was founded in l994. Alien’s facilities include: its corporate headquarters in Morgan Hill, CA; RFID tag manufacturing facility in Fargo, ND; the Alien RFID Solutions Center in the Dayton, Ohio area, Quatrotec’s offices at the San Francisco International Airport (SFO); and its sales offices in the US, Europe and Asia. Alien is a member of EPCGlobal.


RFID Identificators may be grouped according to various criteria:
1. According to shape:
Card (ISO 7816-1), size 86 x 54 x 0.76 mm;
Clamshell card, size 86 x 54 x 1.8 mm;
Keyring – different shapes and sizes;
Glass capsule, implanted in animals;
Animal ear mark;
Nail and etc.

2. According to power supply:
Passive tags – tags without an on-board power source (battery). The simple design of these tags makes them very durable – they have a service life of about ten years, and resistant to external conditions (temperature, humidity, chemicals, etc.). Their price is very affordable compared to the other types of identificators. One drawback is the distance for reading.
Active tags – tags with an on-board power source. This allows a greater reading distance, an option to incorporate a chip and the performance of additional functions: temperature measurement, monitoring of set parameters, etc.
Battery-assisted passive tags with an on-board power source like in the active tags. The battery improves the reading distance. Some of these tags are not activated until alerted by the reader, thus saving the battery life.

3. According to the possibility for reading and writing:
Read-only – tags having a factory-assigned serial number which may not be changed. Read-only tags are very common on account of their cheap price and ease of use.
Write Once Read Many (WORM) – the writing is done at the first use of the identificator. WORM tags have a good price/productivity ratio and are widely used in business applications.
Read Write (RW) tags where data can be written and re-written many times (from 10 to 100,000 and even more). When active RW tags are used, the writing can be done by both the reader and also by the tag itself. RW tags may be used in many different applications but their high price (for the time being) makes them less affordable.

Security in a UHF RFID tag

In the UHF tags available today there really is no security, in fact in many of the RFID tags that are used in applications today, there is no security. It is not needed, and so there has been no attempts to include it.

The one area that this not true is in the area of financial transactions where the predominant standard is ISO/IEC 14443. This standard (the basis of NFC, Near Field Communications) is a High Frequency (13.56 MHz) standard that includes the capability for encryption of the information on a tag. This capability does not exist for UHF tags – at the moment.

There have been many meetings of the UHF RFID experts to talk about how to add true security to a UHF RFID system.

This majority of RFID applications do not need security. The unique number stored in the tag means nothing to someone reading the tag unless they have access to the databases that explain the meaning of the number. However, some applications want to have more information stored in the tag and some of that information may be sensitive. Hence the need for security.

There are several areas that require the use of security. These include untraceability, loss-identification and/or protection, memory-locking, and privilege-management. To allow some of these to be implemented we also need to add file-management capability.

In order to achieve security, the tag and the reader have to prove to each other that they are allowed to talk. This is called authentication and it is a necessary process before the tag tells the reader any information. This is the first stage of the secure process.

There are several parts to the Authentication process. The tag must declare and prove that it is capable of secure communications. The interrogator must declare that not only is it capable but that it is allowed to access certain information on the tag. There may be information on the tag that not all interrogators are allowed to access, and so there must be a method of creating privilege based access and hence file areas on the tag.

Once the tag and interrogator have authenticated each other, then the secure communication can start. By secure communication we mean the “real-time” encryption of the data that passes between the tag and interrogator. This is not the storing of encrypted data, it is the process where the tag has the ability to encrypt anything it communicates to an interrogator.

The implications of having an encryption engine on board a passive tag are obviously very wide. The loss of power to the tag during the encryption process means that the data does not get secured and transmitted, so a lot of work has to go into the design of these new tags.

One of the areas that the experts have been looking at is what encryption routines should be available. The group has decided that there should be no restrictions as some applications may only require very simple security while others may need the power of an AES type encryption. the idea is to not include the encryption algorithm informatuon in the air interface standard but to create another document where all the algorithms are detailed. The manufacturer of the tags would then be able to decide which encryption suite his tags will support.

In ISO, the air interface for UHF type C (ISO/IEC 18000-63) will be the first standard to be created for a secure RFID system. The basis for the security is already included in ISO/IEC 29167-1 which is currently in ballot. The specific information for each type of tag is then included in the air interface standards (ISO/IEC 18000 series). The standard that will specify the security suites has not yet been decided, but there is a proposal that ISO/IEC 29167 be the home for these suites.

Not all tags will require security, and the extra cost for the tags will not be something that all applications can bear so these specifications will all be optional.

The work has begun to create the standards for this concept, but it will not be complete for a while. In fact we will probably not see the standards published until late in 2012. As the work progresses, I will update the blog with information.

Six Things to Know for a Successful Barcode Implementation

Any modern supply chain business knows that traceability is essential — for ensuring visibility, meeting compliance, and, if necessary, performing an effective recall. While some companies still insist on using inefficient and inaccurate manual methods of collecting information, automatic data capture systems collect information quickly and accurately and store it automatically in a digital database for easy access.

The most common and affordable method of traceability is barcoding. And while a barcoding system makes inventory tracking and asset visibility much easier, implementing the system can be a tall task. Transitioning from manual methods to barcodes forces a business to overhaul its entire data collection process and requires experts to perform new technology integration. However, the benefits of a barcoding system far outweigh any headaches that may occur during research and installation.

Here are six guidelines to keep in mind if your business is new to barcoding:
Know your industry’s barcode standards.
Before you determine the size of your barcodes, or where you’ll put them on your products, make sure to familiarize yourself with the standards of your industry. There are often regulations in place that businesses must follow, and you need to make sure you’re in compliance with these regulations before you begin designing a label. GS1 is a good place to start. Your industry may also determine if 1D or 2D barcodes are best for your application.

Know the environment in which your barcodes will be scanned.
Depending on the application or industry, barcodes can be scanned in a variety of environments — from warehouses and distribution centers to retail stores and point-of-sale applications. Some sizes, types, and colors work better in certain environments. Knowing where your barcodes will be scanned allows you to design the best possible barcode.

Barcode placement really does matter.
A barcode should never be obscured or damaged — this defeats the entire purpose of the barcode system. Folds, flaps, and edges are natural enemies to the barcode. Speed is one of the main advantages of a barcode system, so you want to put the barcode labels in an obvious and unobstructed location. If employees need to search for a barcode or smooth a crease to get an accurate scan, the entire traceability system slows down, reducing efficiency.

Size and color affect readability.
The size and color of your barcodes is dictated by your industry’s regulations, but sometimes there is wiggle room for customization. Size is extremely important because barcodes need to be scanned easily. A barcode that is so small that it becomes hard to scan is going to be a be a massive time-waster. On the other hand, an unnecessarily large barcode is a waste of valuable space. It all depends on your industry, and where and how your barcodes will be scanned.

A black barcode printed on a white label is the default color combination for barcoding, mainly because it is easy for scanners to read. If your industry’s regulations allow it, there are some other potential color combinations that you can take advantage of. However, readability is the most important factor, so don’t compromise on readability just to have more unique or colorful labels.

Integrate the barcode system with any other technologies.
Most businesses use multiple types of software and technologies. When you’re implementing a barcoding system, you need to make sure it’s compatible with the business’s current structure and systems. Installing a barcode system will probably require you to tinker with existing software, so during implementation you need to anticipate and prevent any possible issues that may arise. An experienced barcode solution provider can integrate an automatic data capture system with minimal hitches to ensure a seamless installation.

Know which kind of barcode printer will provide the best ROI for your business application.
Thermal: There are two kinds of thermal printers — direct thermal and thermal transfer. Both use heat to transfer ink to paper. They’re known for producing high-quality images and being extremely durable. Direct thermal labels have a shorter shelf life than thermal transfer labels; this may influence which kind of thermal printer you choose.

Inkjet: These printers can produce readable barcodes at a very fast pace, and are perfect for high-speed production lines. Installation prices are generally quite high though, and inkjet printers need more upkeep than thermal printers.

Dot matrix: Dot matrix printers produce barcodes by printing hundreds and hundreds of tiny arranged dots. They’re usually inexpensive and can print barcodes on a variety of surfaces. However, dot matrix printers only print low- to medium-quality labels.

Make sure you research the total cost of ownership for each type of printer. Based on your industry standards, environment, and output, you may find that the printer you originally thought was a good fit for your needs will actually increase costs and/or downtime.

Even though every business is unique, it’s important to keep these six guidelines in mind when considering a barcoding system for your operations. The initial installation will require research, coordination, and work — but if you put time and energy into the initial planning, the transition from manual to automatic data collection will go much more smoothly and produce visible ROI.


One of the biggest fears of any car owner is not knowing where their vehicle is at all times.

Just the thought of handing your car over to a complete stranger for several days is understandably spine-chilling. Most people are aware of how a Global Positioning System (GPS) works. It is essentially a satellite tracking device which allows you to know the exact location of a particular place or object.

What we did was combine this useful technology to the auto transportation process in order to insure our customers of their vehicle’s safety. By equipping our trucks with this system, we can get updated positioning coordinates of their location at any given time.

By logging into our online VEHICLE  tracking system, you can receive updated information as well as actual map images of your vehicle’s location. This will assuredly provide anyone shipping their vehicle with peace of mind.

RFID application in Hotel keyless room entry system

Hotel keyless room entry is arguably the most talked about hotel technology trend currently available.
It’s a game changer. Mobile access at hotels empowers guests with the ability to bypass the usual hotel check-in process. They skip traditional procedures and can head to their room more quickly to unlock their guestroom door through contactless mobile technology.

It has the potential to improve the guest experience substantially. Today’s guests, particularly those who fall within the Millennial demographic, have shown great appreciation for being able to use their mobile device during travel and hotel stays, even prioritizing packing a smartphone over a toothbrush, deodorant or even a driver’s license. Research even shows that 1 in 8 people are addicted to smartphones and spend an average of almost four hours a day using them.

A major component of keyless room entry at hotels is radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. RFID technology has become a key component in the Internet of Things (IoT) as a means of tagging, or identifying, physical objects on the IoT network. Early projections predicted that 9.2 billion tags would be sold in 2015, up 2 billion from the year before.