The UHF EPCglobal Generation 2 standard allows the commercialized provision of mass adoption of UHF RFID technology for passive smart tags and labels. Main fields of applications are supply chain management and logistics for worldwide use with special consideration of European, US and Chinese frequencies to ensure that operating distances of several meters can be realized.
The G2X is a dedicated chip for passive, intelligent tags and labels supporting the EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 UHF RFID standard. It is especially suited for applications where operating distances of several meters and high anti-collision rates are required.

The G2X is a product out of the NXP Semiconductors UCODE product family. The entire UCODE product family offers anti-collision and collision arbitration functionality. This allows a reader to simultaneously operate multiple labels/tags within its antenna field. A UCODE G2X based label/ tag requires no external power supply.

Its contact-less interface generates the power supply via the antenna circuit by propagative energy transmission from the interrogator (reader), while the system clock is generated by an on-chip oscillator. Data transmitted from interrogator to label/tag is demodulated by the interface, and it also modulates the interrogator’s electromagnetic field for data transmission from label/tag to interrogator.

A label/tag can be operated without the need for line of sight or battery, as long as it is connected to a dedicated antenna for the targeted frequency range. When the label/tag is within the interrogator’s operating range, the high-speed wireless interface allows data transmission in both directions.

In addition to the EPC specifications the G2X offers an integrated EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) feature and read protection of the memory content. On top of the specification of the G2XL the G2XM offers 512-bit of user memory.

UCODE G2XM G2XL Key features
512-bit user memory (G2XM only)
240-bit of EPC memory
64-bit tag identifier (TID) including 32-bit unique serial number
Memory read protection
EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) command
Calibrate command
32-bit kill password to permanently disable the tag
32-bit access password to allow a transition into the secured transmission state
Broad international operating frequency: from 840 MHz to 960 MHz
Long read/write ranges due to extremely low power design
Reliable operation of multiple tags due to advanced anti-collision
Forward link: 40-160 kbit/s
Return link: 40-640 kbit/s

UCODE G2XM G2XL Key benefits
High sensitivity provides long read range
Low Q-factor for consistent performance on different materials
Improved interference suppression for reliable operation in multi-reader environment
Large input capacitance for ease of assembly and high assembly yield
Highly advanced anti-collision resulting in highest identification speed
Reliable and robust RFID technology suitable for dense reader and noisy environments
Custom commands
EAS Alarm
Enables the UHF RFID tag to be used as EAS tag without the need for a backend data base.
Read Protect
Protects all memory content including CRC16 from unauthorized reading.
Activates permanent back-scatter in order to evaluate the tag-to-reader performance.
Supply chain management Item level tagging
Item level tagging
Asset management
Container identification
Pallet and case tracking
Product authentication
Outside above mentioned applications, please contact NXP Semiconductors for support.

Examples of UHF frequency allocations

UHF frequency in Australia
UHF Citizens Band: 476–477 MHz
Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz

UHF frequency in Canada
430–450 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 70 cm band)
470–806 MHz: Terrestrial television (with select channels in the 700 MHz band left vacant)
1452–1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting (L band)[4]
Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts

UHF frequency in United Kingdom
380–399.9 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) service for emergency use
430–440 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 70 cm band)
446.0–446.1;MHz: Private mobile radio
446.1–446.2;MHz: Digital private mobile radio
457–464 MHz: Scanning telemetry and telecontrol, assigned mostly to the water, gas, and electricity industries
606–614 MHz: Radio microphones and radio-astronomy
470–862 MHz: Previously used for analogue TV channels 21–69 (until 2012).
Currently channels 21–35, 37 and 39–60 are used for Freeview digital TV.[5] Channel 36 is used for radar; channel 38 was used for radio astronomy but has been cleared to allow PMSE users access on a licensed, shared basis.
791–862 MHz,[6] i.e. channels 61–69 inclusive were previously used for licensed and shared wireless microphones (channel 69 only), has since been allocated to 4G cellular communications.
863 – 865 MHz: Used for licence-exempt wireless systems.
863–870 MHz: Short range devices, LPWAN IoT devices such as NarrowBand-IoT.
870–960 MHz: Cellular communications (GSM900 – Vodafone and O2 only) including GSM-R and future TETRA
1240–1325 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 23 cm band)
1710–1880 MHz: 2G Cellular communications (GSM1800)
1880–1900 MHz: DECT cordless telephone
1900–1980 MHz: 3G cellular communications – mobile phone uplink
2110–2170 MHz: 3G cellular communications – base station downlink
2310–2450 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 13 cm band)

UHF frequency in United States
UHF channels are used for digital television broadcasting on both over the air channels and cable television channels. Since 1962, UHF channel tuners (at the time, channels 14-83) have been required in television receivers by the All-Channel Receiver Act. However, because of their more limited range, and because few sets could receive them until older sets were replaced, UHF channels were less desirable to broadcasters than VHF channels (and licenses sold for lower prices).
A complete list of US Television Frequency allocations can be found at North American Television Frequencies.
There is a considerable amount of lawful unlicensed activity (cordless phones, wireless networking) clustered around 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz, regulated under Title 47 CFR Part 15. These ISM bands – frequencies with a higher unlicensed power permitted for use originally by Industrial, Scientific, Medical apparatus – are now some of the most crowded in the spectrum because they are open to everyone. The 2.45 GHz frequency is the standard for use by microwave ovens, adjacent to the frequencies allocated for Bluetooth network devices.
The spectrum from 806 MHz to 890 MHz (UHF channels 70–83) was taken away from TV broadcast services in 1983, primarily for analog mobile telephony.
In 2009, as part of the transition from analog to digital over-the-air broadcast of television, the spectrum from 698 MHz to 806 MHz (UHF channels 52–69) was removed from TV broadcasting, making it available for other uses. Channel 55, for instance, was sold to Qualcomm for their MediaFLO service, which is resold under various mobile telephone network brands. Some US broadcasters had been offered incentives to vacate this channel early, permitting its immediate mobile use. The FCC’s scheduled auction for this newly available spectrum was completed in March 2008.
The FCC has allowed Americans to connect any device and any application to the 22 MHz of radio spectrum that people are calling the 700 MHz band. The FCC did not include a wholesale condition, which would have required the owner of the band to resell bandwidth to third parties who could then service the end user. Google argued that the wholesale requirement would have stimulated internet competition. As of 2007, 96% of the country’s broadband access was controlled by DSL and cable providers. A wholesale condition could have meant a third option for internet service.
225–420 MHz: Government use, including meteorology, military aviation, and federal two-way use
420–450 MHz: Government radiolocation and amateur radio (70 cm band)
433 MHz: Short range consumer devices including automotive, alarm systems, home automation, temperature sensors
450–470 MHz: UHF business band, General Mobile Radio Service, and Family Radio Service 2-way “walkie-talkies”, public safety
470–512 MHz: Low-band TV channels 14–20 (shared with public safety land mobile 2-way radio in 12 major metropolitan areas scheduled to relocate to 700 MHz band by 2023
512–608 MHz: Medium-band TV channels 21–36
608–614 MHz: Channel 37 used for radio astronomy and wireless medical telemetry
614–698 MHz: Mobile broadband shared with TV channels 38–51 auctioned in April 2017. TV stations will relocate by 2020.
617–652 MHz: Mobile broadband service downlink
652–663 MHz: Wireless microphones (higher priority) and unlicensed devices (lower priority)
663–698 MHz: Mobile broadband service uplink
698–806 MHz: Was auctioned in March 2008; bidders got full use after the transition to digital TV was completed on June 12, 2009 (formerly high-band UHF TV channels 52–69)
806–816 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 70–72)
817–824 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (mobile phone) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way)
824–849 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, terminal (mobile phone) (formerly TV channels 73–77)
849–851 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems (Gogo)
851–861 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 77–80)
862–869 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (base station) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way)
869–894 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, base station (formerly TV channels 80–83)
894–896 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems (Gogo)
902–928 MHz: ISM band, amateur radio (33 cm band), cordless phones and stereo, radio-frequency identification, datalinks
929–930 MHz: Pagers
931–932 MHz: Pagers
935–941 MHz: Commercial 2-way radio
941–960 MHz: Mixed studio-transmitter links, SCADA, other.
960–1215 MHz: Aeronautical radionavigation
1240–1300 MHz: Amateur radio (23 cm band)
1452–1492 MHz: Military use (therefore not available for Digital Audio Broadcasting, unlike Canada/Europe)
1525–1559 MHz: Skyterra downlink (Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use)
1559–1610 MHz: Radio Navigation Satellite Services (RNSS) Upper L-band
1563–1587 MHz: GPS L1 band
1593–1610 MHz: GLONASS G1 band
1959–1591 MHz: Galileo E1 band (overlapping with GPS L1)
1610–1660.5 MHz: Mobile Satellite Service
1610–1618: Globalstar uplink
1618–1626.5 MHz: Iridium uplink and downlink
1626.5–1660.5 MHz: Skyterra uplink (Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use[12])
1675–1695 MHz: Meteorological federal users
1695–1780 MHz: AWS mobile phone uplink (UL) operating band
1695–1755 MHz: AWS-3 blocks A1 and B1
1710–1755 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F
1755–1780 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J (various federal agencies transitioning by 2025)
1780–1850 MHz: exclusive federal use (Air Force satellite communications, Army’s cellular-like communication system, other agencies)
1850–1920 MHz: PCS mobile phone—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz
1920–1930 MHz: DECT cordless telephone
1930–2000 MHz: PCS base stations—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz
2000–2020 MHz: lower AWS-4 downlink (mobile broadband)
2020–2110 MHz: Cable Antenna Relay service, Local Television Transmission service, TV Broadcast Auxiliary service, Earth Exploration Satellite service
2110–2155 MHz: AWS mobile broadband downlink
2110–2155 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F
2155–2180 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J
2180–2200 MHz: upper AWS-4
2290–2300 MHz: NASA Deep Space Network
2300–2305 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, lower segment)
2305–2315 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service uplink blocks A and B
2315–2320 MHz: WCS block C (AT&T is pursuing smart grid deployment)
2320–2345 MHz: Satellite radio (Sirius and XM)
2345–2350 MHz: WCS block D (AT&T is pursuing smart grid deployment)
2350–2360 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service downlink blocks A and B
2360–2390 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems
2390–2395 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems (secondary deployment in a dozen of airports), amateur radio otherwise
2395–2400 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, upper segment)
2400–2483.5 MHz: ISM, IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n wireless LAN, IEEE 802.15.4-2006, Bluetooth, radio-controlled aircraft, microwave ovens, ZigBee
2483.5–2495 MHz: Globalstar downlink and Terrestrial Low Power Service suitable for TD-LTE small cells

Types of Memory in RFID Tags

Gen 2 RFID tags are comprised of an antenna and a chip (more accurately called an integrated circuit, or IC). The ICs for Gen 2 tags contain four types of memory:
* Reserved memory
* EPC memory
* TID memory
* User memory

When starting your application and selecting a tag, in order to know about how much memory is on each tag’s IC, you can check the specifications page on each tag’s data sheet. To learn the properties of each memory bank, we have outlined them below:

Reserved Memory:
This memory bank stores the kill password and the access password (each are 32 bits). The kill password permanently disables the tag (very rarely used), and the access password is set to lock and unlock the tag’s write capabilities. This memory bank is only writable if you want to specify a certain password. Most users do not use this memory area unless their applications contain sensitive data. It cannot store information besides the two codes.

EPC Memory:
This memory bank stores the EPC code, or the Electronic Product Code. It has a minimum of 96 bits of writable memory. The EPC memory is what is typically used in most applications if they only need 96 bits of memory. There are some tags that have the capability of allocating more bits to the EPC memory from the user memory. EPC memory is your first writable memory bank.

TID Memory:
This memory is used only to store the unique tag ID number by the manufacturer when the IC is manufactured. Typically, this memory portion cannot be changed.

User Memory:
If the user needs more memory than the EPC section has available, certain ICs have extended user memory which can store more information. When it comes to user memory, there is no standard in how many bits of memory are writable on each tag. Typically, the extended memory is no more than 512 bits, but there are some high memory tags with up to 4K or 8K bytes of memory. This is the second writable memory bank for Gen 2 ICs.

UHF RFID Tag IC-Alien Higgs-3

Higgs-3 is a highly integrated single chip UHF RFID Tag IC. The chip conforms to the EPCglobal Class 1 Gen 2 specifications and provides state-of-the-art performance for a broad range of UHF RFID tagging applications.

Higgs-3 is a highly integrated single chip UHF RFID Tag IC. The chip conforms to the EPCglobal Class 1 Gen 2 specifications and provides state-of-the-art performance for a broad range of UHF RFID tagging applications.

Higgs-3 operates at extremely low power levels yet still provides sufficient backscatter signal to read tags at extended range. It can also be programmed at low RF power and, in conjunction with a custom command – LoadImage – be programmed at high speed. Higgs-3 is implemented in a low cost CMOS process and uses proven and cost effective EEPROM technology.

Higgs-3 offers a flexible memory architecture that provides for the optimum allocation of EPC and User memory for different use cases such as legacy part numbering systems and service history. User memory can also be read and or write locked on 64-bit boundaries, supporting a variety of of public/private usage models.

The IC also features a factory programmed 64-bit serial number that cannot be altered. In conjunction with the EPC code, this provides a unique “fingerprint” for the tagged item.

Alien Higgs-3 RFID IC Features
* Meets EPCglobal Gen2 (V 1.2.0) as well as ISO/IEC 18000-6C
* Worldwide operation in the RFID UHF bands (860-960 MHz)
* 800-Bits of Nonvolatile Memory
– 96-EPC Bits, extensible to 480 Bits
– 512 User Bits
– 64 Bit Unique TID
– 32 Bit Access and 32 bit Kill Passwords
* Pre-Programmed with a unique, unalterable 64-bit serial number
* User Memory can be Block Perma-Locked as well as read password protected in 64 Bit Blocks
* Supports all Mandatory and Optional Commands including Item Level Commands
* Custom Commands for high speed programming; 30 tags per second for the 96-bit EPC number
* Low power operation for both read and program
* Exceptional operating range, up to 10m with appropriate antenna

Alien Higgs-3 RFID IC Applications
* Supply Chain Management
* Distribution Logistics
* Product Authentication
* Asset Inventory and Tracking
* Baggage Handling and Tracking
* Item Level Tagging

What RFID frequency is right for me?

RFID cards and key tags come in three frequencies: low frequency, high frequency and ultra-high frequency. The main differences have to do with the reading distance between the reader and the card or key tag.

Technology options:
Low Frequency (LF) – 125 kHz
Also known as: Prox, HID, Clamshell
Read range: 1”-2”
High Frequency (HF) – 13.56 MHz
Also known as: MiFare, i-Class, NFC
Reader range: 2”– 5”
Ultra High Frequency (UHF) – 900 MHz
Read range: 2” to 30’

When looking for cards you should start with the specification of the reader that the cards or key tags will work with. If you have the flexibility to choose a reader then you can select the card and reader frequency that is right for your environment.



Speed up delivery, reduce waste, control costs and improve your customer service with Informs. Designed specifically for manufacturing, these technology solutions allow you to track materials and labor through production cycles and along supply chains for a tangible ROI and a real competitive advantage.

Informs can help you reduce errors and significantly increase productivity throughout your manufacturing operations with: fully-automated, hands-free data collection; parts marking to track work-in-process and provide lifetime traceability; and real-time data capture integrated into MES, WMS, ERP or other management systems. We offer solutions for asset tracking, load management, product labeling and tracking, receiving, put away, order picking and staging, shipping, inventory management and replenishment, time and attendance, and quality assurance.

Data collection and marking/labeling solutions Handle labor-intensive assembly tasks and optimize and track operations with solutions ranging from fixed-mounted computers and wireless scanners to fully automated environments with printer applicators and RFID readers.

Security and access control For the latest security, Informs delivers a certified wireless installation ensuring optimum performance from your networks. We provide customers with many tools for rapid deployment, fast problem solving, and remote configuration control.

Multiple form factors From a rugged PDA to a full-keyboard handheld computer with scanner and local area radio, our solutions provide manufacturers with the same capabilities they have in nonhazardous environments.

Industrial RFID tag from OPP IOT

OPP IOT provide various industrial RFID tag in ultra-high frequency applications. It mounted on virtually any surface – metal, plastic, wood, paper and animal- making them ideal for tracking assets , supply chain, animal tracking etc.

* Unsurpassed quality – fully automated manufacturing and direct-bonding technology ensure RFID tag reliability.

* Practically limitless options – choose from a broad range of standard sizes and integrated chips, or customize to fit any application.

* Rugged reliability – workable under harsh environment. To achieve good performance in the extreme environment such as high temperature, wafer, chemic solutions etc

ATT5557 chips in access control system

While as technology developed, the traditional EM4100 chip is no longer worked well, because the ID number could be easily duplicated, which make its safety severely be doubted.

Then ATA5557 chips emerged in the stage, it is a chip with pin code embedded, which allow user to set up the password for safety concerns.

To better protect the password, this T5557 chip also adopt a interesting settings, which if the password misread for over 3 times, the chip will permanently locked and can not be used any more.

The market’s response is so appreciated that access control systems based on T5557 chips rapidly occupy the market.

UHF RFID tags application in Oil and Gas industry

The Oil and Gas industry includes far-reaching enterprises from exploration to supply chain, including plant, equipment, tools, personnel, vehicles, machinery, documents and related items. Often it is critical to have ready access to these objects for the conduct of business, with any lapse in access to needed objects and the people that use these objects, potentially causing delays in product delivery and significant financial loses. In addition, critical data resides on company IT assets, which must be secured against information or IT equipment theft.

Oil and gas companies own innumerable assets of a wide variety, from offices to plants to grounds and at sea, all requiring registry, accountability and periodic inspections and maintenance. In addition, a wide range of documents, from geologic studies of oil fields to personnel records, most of which contain sensitive and secret information. Human oversight of these objects and people, or the use of bar coding, have proven inadequate anecdotally.

UHF and Active RFID technologies enable Oil and Gas companies to fundamentally improve processes, enhance customer service and increase profitability.

How does RFID benefit Libraries?

RFID frees up staff time and allows them to interact more with library visitors, develop new services and benefit from faster, smarter transactions. Time and effort is saved through faster, easier issuing, returning and tagging of items. RFID provides improved security systems and flexibility in stock management and inventory control, data collection and trend analysis.

How does RFID improve service to library visitors?
RFID allows you to deliver services smarter, faster and in the way visitors want to receive them. RFID speeds up processing at the issues desk and self service systems can eliminate queues or long waiting times all together. RFID can also provide the means to offer longer opening hours, enhanced customer services and improved stock availability.

RFID Benefits Include:
Faster issuing

Item IDs are stored and read wirelessly from the RFID tag applied to each library item
The tags on multiple items can be read at one time, then automatically issued from your library management software and security disabled… all without the use of a barcode scanner.
Faster returns

The tags on multiple items can be read at one time, then automatically returned into library stock and the security enabled… all without the use of a barcode scanner.
Automatic return shutes and sorting machines allow for an effective 24/7 returns service to customers and a great time saving feature for staff.
Less Manual Labour

By not having to open books or scan barcodes saves staff a lot of physical effort over the course of the day.
Appling RFID tags to items is much easier and quicker than EM security strips.
Customer Self-service

RFID simplifies the self-service process improving convenience and service to library visitors.
Improved Security

RFID security gates don’t give false alarms.
RFID gates have detection rates of up to 95% making them a greater deterent to costly book loss.
RFID gates cover wider entrances with single spans of up to 1.6 metres per aisle.
Gateviewer software shows what items alarmed the security gates and when, giving a better chance of tracking down missing items.
Inventory Scanning

Scan your library with RFID Inventory Wand to find missing items or to perform a stock take in a fraction of the time.