What is RFID Technology?

There’s a great deal of public discussion is currently surrounding credit cards that have RFID technology. Many people don’t know what it is, how it works, or what it is for. In brief, RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification which involves an “RF tag” and a “reader”. These components allow for what they industry calls “contactless payments”.
Here’s some background:
In 2005, the first RF Credit Card was introduced. These “contactless” cards could be simply waved in front of a special reader or swiped through a traditional terminal.
An RFID Credit Card is a standard credit card with a Radio Frequency Microprocessor embedded in it. At its most basic level it is nothing more than a “Read Only” Chip with your personal credit card information embedded in it which can be read by an “RFID Enabled Point of Sale Terminal”.
It has been said that the RFID chip contains all of your pertinent account information, such as the customer’s name, the account number and expiration date of your card (more about this later).
The benefits of RFID credit card transactions are convenience, speed, and the elimination of employee contact with the card. Not having to part with your card reduces the risk of leaving it somewhere. To minimize accidental scanning of these cards, they are designed to be read at a distance of 1 – 4 inches from the reader.
There is, however, public concern as to whether RFID card can be “hi-jacked” by use of an unauthorized RFID scanner with the information then being used for fraudulent purposes. It is important to note that there are two parts to this process: scanning the card to retrieve the information, and then being able to use the retrieved information to make a fraudulent financial transaction. The implication in recent media articles is that it is easy to “hi-jack” the RFID information and that it is easy to then use this information to make fraudulent purchases. But reality is less cut and dry.

Are these new RFID credit card safe?

Summer travel season is upon us. Many of you are already starting to pack for this year’s big trip, and for more than a few of you the likely destination is Europe. That being the case, this is the perfect time to talk about a subject that is creeping more and more into vacation planning – do I need to take a RFID credit card and how safe are they?

A “radio frequency identification” credit card is one that has a chip embedded in the card. The chip contains and broadcasts much of the same information that a traditional card carries on the magnetic stripe on the back. A great many retail establishments in Europe, especially restaurants, no longer swipe credit cards. Rather they read the chip in the card at table side using a device held one to four inches from the card, and essentially the card never leaves the diner’s hands. You can even just hold your wallet up to the scanner. Reports are, in some establishments, no RFID card – you had better be prepared to pay cash.

RFID cards are still not commonly available here. Most of the big card issuers will send you one upon request. Then too, in point of fact, most European establishments will also have a magnetic card reader available to swipe your card should you not have a card with a chip. But as the use of chip embedded cards become the norm abroad, and eventually in this country, the next generation of cards will all likely have them.

Which leads to the obvious question – are they safe?

Since the new technology allows the card to be read while still in the owner’s wallet, can identity thieves steal credit information simply by placing an RFID scanner nearby? The answer seems to be a conditional maybe, but a rather extraordinary set of circumstances would have to be present.

Remember we said the card is read by a scanner held one to four inches from the chip. That would mean a bad guy would have to get his scanner within four inches of your card. Some argue this would be possible by a scammer bumping into you in a crowd and running a wand over where your wallet is – pocket or purse.

Some argue that scammers can develop more highly sophisticated scanners that can work at greater distances, but that will take a leap in technology that would be costly, and in the end probably not worth it.

The current generation of RFID cards represents not only an ease of use for both the merchant and the card holder, but also an advance in protective technology. Most RFID card now being issued encrypts the cardholder’s information. So even if the card is read by a remote scanner, to even access personal information, the scammer must also be able to break the card issuer’s encryption code.

Moreover, RFID card also create a new authentication code for each transaction. Unlike a magnetic stripe card a thief can use over and over until the card is shut down, with a single authentication code it is pretty much a one and done situation for the scammer.

(But if the card contains both a chip and a magnetic stripe, and it physically falls into the hands of a bad guy – you are in the same boat as with any stolen credit card, it can be used until the account is shut down.).

Much of the studies cited as showing the danger of RFID cards are several years old and were based on what can be characterized as first generation cards. Today’s cards are much more sophisticated than those issued three and four years ago.

However, as the summer travel season approaches ads are everywhere on the web, and in print publications, saying you “must” purchase a new scanner proof wallet or risk your card being scanned by a thief in a crowd. These scanner proof wallets usually are aluminum-lined lined or you might be warned you must by card sleeves designed to disrupt unwanted radio waves. But if you are worried, you can accomplish the same by simply wrapping your card or cards in aluminum foil, or an empty Altoids mint tin works just fine.

Or, if you are carrying two RFID cards, carry them together. Anyone scanning them will get interwoven information from both that will be impossible to separate and decipher.

There is no doubt that RFID chips and the wave of the future. By 2017 all U.S. passports will contain chips. There is a new method of embedding radio frequency identification chips in paper allowing for “smart” paper to be used in banknotes, legal documents, and tickets. Already the European Central Bank, the Bank of Japan and the Saudi Arabian treasury are studying chip embed currency.

So, as the say – what’s in your wallet?” If it’s an RFID credit card, you probably don’t have to worry, and if your travel is to many places in Europe, you’ll be ready to handle any transaction.

RFID Tags

RFID Class-1 Generation-2 (“Gen-2”) tags are used for item level identification in retail environments. “Class-1” refers to the functionality of the tag while “Gen-2” refers to the physcial and logical standards of tag and the encompassing system. These standards are maintained by EPCglobal. “Gen-2” standards were adopted in December of 2004 and offer many advantages over “Gen-1” such as:

– An interoperable, global standard
– Faster and more flexible read speeds
– Faster, more accurate performance through the use of advanced anticollision protocols
– An easier way to deploy many readers at one time to end users
– Enhanced sercuirty and privacy .

RFID TAGS ARE CLASSIFIED AS CLASS 0 THROUGH CLASS 5, DEPENDING ON THEIR FUNCTIONALITY:

Class 0 UHFl read-only, preprogrammed passive tag
Class 1 UHF or HF; write once, read many (WORM)
Class 2 Passive read-write tags that can be written to at any point in the supply chain
Class 3 Read-write with onboard sensors capable of recording parameters like temperature, pressure, and motion; can be semipassive or active
Class 4 Read-write active tags with integrated transmitters; can communicate with other tags and readers
Class 5 Similar to Class 4 tags but with additional functionality; can provide power to other tags and communicate with devices other than readers

(Class-1 Gen-2 RFID tags are backward-compatible with Gen-1 Class-0 and Class 1 tags.)

Types of RFID

RFID products fall into two basic categories: Passive and Active. Passive tags do not have batteries and have indefinite life expectancies. Active Tags are powered by batteries and either have to be recharged, have their batteries replaced or be disposed of when the batteries fail.

RFID products are then broken up into different frequencies. Tags and Antennas are tuned or matched much the same way as a radio is tuned to a frequency to receive different channels. These frequencies are grouped into Four basic ranges: Low Frequency, High Frequency, Very High Frequency and Ultra-High Frequencies.

LF: low Frequency range:30KHZ-300KHZ;RFID USES:125KHZ
HF: HIGH Frequency range:3MHZ-30MHZ;RFID USES:13.56MHZ
VHF: VERY HIGH Frequency range:30MHZ-300MHZ;RFID USES:Not used for rfid
UHF: ULTRA HIGH Frequency range:300MHZ-3GHZ;RFID USES:868MHZ,915MHZ

Each frequency range has its advantages and disadvantages. Europe use 868 MHz. for its UHF applications while the US uses 915 MHz. for its UHF applications. Japan does not allow the use of the UHF frequency for RFID applications. Low Frequency tags (LF) are less costly to manufacturer than Ultra High Frequency (UHF) tags. UHF tags offer better read/write range and can transfer data faster then other tags. HF tags work best at close range but are more effective at penetrating non-metal objects especially objects with high water content.

Once a frequency range is determined, then it is time to choose an antenna that best fits the application. Antennas come in all sorts of sizes and shapes. The size of the antenna determines the range of the application. Large antennas used with Active Tags can have a range of 100 feet or more. Large antennas used with Passive Tags generally have a range of 10 feet of less. There are dock door antennas (some times called Portals) that allow a forklift driver to drive between two antennas. Information can be collected from the tags without the forklift driver having to stop. There are antennas that mount between rollers on conveyors for reading/writing from below. While other antennas are available that mount to the side of or above the conveyors. Handheld Reader/Writers are available as well.

Controllers are available to communicate with most Networks (Ethernet, DeviceNet, ProFibus, etc). They typically have serial ports for programming and data transfer. Controllers are usually shipped with programming software to set-up and customize the application. Controllers typically operate on 120VAC or 24VDC.

Ntag216 NFC Wristband Application

Since the pattern of wearing Ntag216 NFC Wristband has effortlessly gotten on among individuals of all ages, silicone wristbands are currently additionally considered as a feature of one’s close to home style proclamation. These wristbands are decorated, debossed, or printed with customized names or names and come in diverse hues. Some dress lines likewise incorporate silicone wristbands in their things.

The way that silicone wristbands are likewise practical makes them a mainstream trinket thing for gatherings and occasions. The wristbands are normally utilized as a part of basic festivals, for example, birthdays, with the date and the name of the occasion carved in the groups. Ntag216 NFC Wristband is viewed as suitable giveaway things for visitors to recall unique events by.

With their effortlessness and proficiency, it’s nothing unexpected that Ntag216 NFC Wristband is broadly utilized today for different purposes. Be that as it may, in light of the fact that they’re economical doesn’t imply that they must be made with substandard quality. Whether you plan to utilize these Ntag216 NFC Wristband as customized blessings, recognizable proof tags or mold extras, it’s generally critical to search for the AAA grade quality.

Which are the best UHF RFID tag for vehicle tracking?

Intended to work on glass surface, the UHF Gen2 RFID Tag has wonderful long perused range and temper-obvious capacity. Along these lines, it is suitable for utilizing on auto windshield to improve the techniques of vehicle access control and upgrades security.

With custom RFID tags mounted on the windshield of vehicles, it gives solid distinguishing proof intends to get to control. Consistent with Generation 2 Electronic Product Code (EPC) RFID standard, the windshield tag permits different tags to be perused inside of read scope of up to 15 feet.

Developed of flimsy layers of plastic, the Gen 2 RFID tag is waterproof and dustproof. What’s more, UHF RFID Labels can be tweaked to add printing to the other side and cement to the next side. Plus, a modified logo and different numbers can be chosen to print on the tag.

The Gen 2 UHF RFID Tag gives a perfect answer for auto windshield surface. At the end of the day, it is a decent decision to use UHF RFID Labels in gated groups, flats business parking areas and carports or anyplace vehicles security is indispensable. It is worth giving a try.

What is the Chip NTAG216F Used for?

The NTAG216F and NTAG213F are the new NFC forum compliant type 2 tag products exclusively developed by NXP semiconductors for their wide applications in electronics (i.e. Bluetooth simple pairing, device authentication, Wi-Fi protected set-up, gaming, connection handover and several others). With different utilities, the NTAG21xF family proffers highly innovative functionalities such as the SLEEP mode, configuration of field detection, FAST_READ command & a configurable password protection. The whole NTAG21xF family has been designed to completely comply with NFC forum Type 2 tag specifications.

The major features and benefits of NTAG216F are as follows –
It supplies energy and provide contactless transmission of data.
It operates on a frequency of 13.56 MHz
The data transfer rate is 106 Kbit per second.
It has the ability to operate from a distance up to 100 mm (depending upon different parameters like antenna geometry and field strength)

The data integrity of the newly invented tag is 16-bit CRC, bit counting, parity and bit coding.
Also, it has 7 byte serial number (cascade level 2 according to ISO/IEC 14443-3)
It has anti-collision properties
Being highly advanced, it has fast read command.
ECC based authentic signature.
Automated NFC counter trigger at read command.
SLEEP mode to re-enable or disable the NTAG216F device from the attached electronics.

Due to its useful features, this device has broad applications in:
Requesting the call
SMS
Call to action
Authentication of device and goods
Bluetooth and Wi-Fi pairing.
Connection handover

Near Field Communication (NFC) technology of NTAG216F are very convenient for large number of customers worldwide by simplifying it to exchange the digital content, make transactions and connect electronic devices with a smooth touch. With a standard connectivity technology, NFC joins varied contactless technologies, facilitating present & future solutions. This highly useful device also paves the way to smart media, mass-market retail applications & electronics. In addition to enhanced radio sensitivity, the all new NTAG type offers password protection ability, additional memory options as well as a number of advance key features.

NFC Tags Explained

What are NFC tags ?
NFC (near field communication) is a wireless technology which allows for the transfer of data such as text or numbers between two NFC enabled devices. NFC tags, for example stickers or wristbands, contain small microchips with little aerials which can store a small amount of information for transfer to another NFC device, such as a mobile phone.
What information can you store ?
There’s a whole set of different data types you can store on an NFC tag. The actual amount of data varies depending on the type of NFC tag used – different tags have different memory capacities. For example, you may choose to store a URL (web address) or a telephone number. A standard Ultralight nfc tag can store a URL of around 41 characters, whereas the newer NTAG213 nfc tag can store a URL of around 132 characters.
Usually, this information is stored in a specific data format (NDEF – NFC data exchange format) so that it can be reliably read by most devices and mobile phones.
Could someone change my NFC tag ?
NFC tags can be locked so that once data has been written, it cannot be altered. For most tags this is a one way process so once the tag is locked it cannot be unlocked.
Encoding and locking are two separate actions. NFC tags can be re-encoded numerous times until they are locked.
How can I encode NFC tags ?
The easiest way at the moment is to use an NFC enabled mobile phone such as the Nexus S running Android or a newer BlackBerry or Nokia. Just download a suitable App and you can be encoding your tags in minutes.
Which phones support NFC ?
At the moment, not very many. But that’s changing and it’s changing quickly. If you want to be ahead of the game then get yourself sorted with NFC now !
Here’s a well maintained list of NFC enabled phones.
What else can I do with NFC tags ?
Like the number of NFC enabled phones, the number of NFC Apps is growing quickly. For example, you can already download Apps which will allow you to encode tags to turn your phone’s wifi or bluetooth on or off – or open your favourite weather page. Encode a tag for your office desk and just tap it to change all your phone settings.
What’s all this about mobile payments ?
A lot of the press you see about NFC tags will be about mobile payments. It’s the same technology but whereas we are talking here about using NFC to transfer a web address or simple data, NFC payments are a lot more complicated and involve a mobile wallet on your phone and all sorts of other things. While the momentum behind NFC is likely to be driven by mobile payments, the technology is capable of much more.
Will NFC tags replace QR Codes ?
That’s a big question and Kimtag think that the answer is probably not.
We generally feel that QR Codes and NFC tags sit alongside each other and both have their advantages and disadvantages. We think that the user experience with NFC tags is generally better and in the instances where the additional cost of using an NFC tag is less relevant to the overall cost (for example on a wristband, brochures or posters), it would be our preference.
However, QR Codes don’t require the user to be so physically close, are free to print and are able to be read by most current smartphones (albeit with a suitable app).
What batteries do they take ?
That’s the clever thing about NFC tags. They don’t require batteries. They get their power from just being near a powered NFC device, for example a mobile phone.
How close do you have to be to the tag ?
The answer of course depends on your phone and the tag itself, but generally you need to be within a couple of centimetres (an inch).
How do Kimtag use NFC Tags ?
The NFC tags you can purchase from Kimtag are pre-encoded with your Kimtag web address and are locked to prevent others from messing with them. They are ready to use with your Kimtag immediately. Anyone tapping or scanning your NFC tag will be taken through to your Kimtag connection page.
So how do I get my NFC tags ?
If you want to use NFC but don’t want to use the Kimtag connection system, you can buy NFC tags, stickers and products from any number of places on the internet – just do a Google search for NFC Tags !
Otherwise, just set up your OPRFID connections page like you would normally. You can either list all your connections or set it up instant redirect to link directly to your social network, webpage or file. Then visit the OPRFID Store and order some NFC tags, wristbands or other NFC items. If you aren’t sure, then get started with a couple of the standard white sticker NFC tags and you’ll see what it’s all about.

Do You Know the Modern Method to Get Information from Animals Ear Tag?

Humans have been using brands to recognize livestock animals for hundreds of years. In prehistoric times it was more of a ritualistic act. During the middle Ages in Europe, hot branding was used to identify the owner of livestock. This has sustained all the way through history. In the American West branding is often associated with trail drives and cattle rustlers. Electronic animal identification is a significant technology in contemporary animal husbandry offering immense benefits. Low-frequency applications are high-tech within the radio frequency classification of animals.

Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) submissions are appropriate for this purpose. Still, UHF systems have inadequacies through their defenselessness to metallic surfaces and liquids. Therefore, the reflection and amalgamation of electromagnetic radiation in the animals’ environment is often challenging. Modern farming techniques dictate careful and accurate control of livestock, including the skill to tell apart individual animals. Livestock ear or recognition tags have been generally used to identify livestock for centuries. The use of identification tags has led to vast improvements in competence in agricultural industries, in addition to enhanced safety and lower costs to consumers because disease and genetic mutations are more easily identified with each improvement in the tracking of livestock.

There are many types of identification devices in use, such as rings, tattoos, and identification tags. The concluding ones are attached to the ear of the animal. Normally they include inkjet or laser markings which recognize, for example, the animal on top of the location where it was raised. EID tags are small “button-like” tags that are positioned in the ear. Each EID tag has an exclusive 15-digit number printed on it, and the number can also be read by scanning the tag with an EID reader. These tags are intended to last for the life of the animal. RFID’s are commonly exploited for electronically identifying animals or objects. In many submissions, the transponder unit is laden with data and attached to an animal or object which is to be recognized.

An excellent application of non-powered RFID system is revealed for identification of animals in a meat-processing place. The reason for identifying individual animals in a meat-processing plant is for safety and sterilization reasons, and to perk up the meat quality and farming methods.

An Animal ear tag typically carries an Animal Identification Number (AIN) or code for the particular animal or for its herd or flock which helps in tracing and finding the animal and to know the detailed information about the animal.

Have You Used The Animal Tag For Your Pet Management?

Everyone loves having pets. They offer unconditional love and give the owner a sense of relaxation from the stressful life. It is evident that owning a pet is not as easy as you think. Everything needs to be scheduled and managed form their food and comfort to managing them when they’re out of the house. However, one must always be prepared for catastrophic situations, such as those when your pet gets lost. In such situations, people generally search for them in their vicinity, but that is not always helpful.

On the other hand, using the conventional manual tracking and identification methods that have long been used for livestock management is also not recommended, although, with improvements in technology, better techniques have been introduced that are more efficient and time-saving. RFID tags have proven to be quite helpful for pet owners as well as farmers, as this microchip tags provide effective traceability, thus ensuring safety.

RFID tags have a unique number that can individually identify your pet, as this RFID tags links to the database which already consists of the information of your pet. This information is about the date of birth, breed, owner’s information and more. RFID tagging has become a significant part of modern farm management. There are many reliable RFID animal tags available in the market nowadays. It also helps the suppliers to track their livestock accurately when any cross-border and national trading of livestock takes place.

Already being used far and wide in the livestock industry, RFID has been successful in serving more than one purposes, for instance, it is becoming set up across the entire food chain for tracking. This tag is easy to use, secure and highly efficient in pet identification. These tags can be applied easily on your pet as per the directions of the manufacturer. For the security of your pet, there is a wide range of ear tags and implantable RFID glass tags available in the market that is cost-effective and can be installed on any animal.

The RFID animal tags are quite effective in saving your time, money as well as labor. If you have an RFID tag installed on your pet, with all the necessary information embedded in it, then you don’t have to worry much even if your pets get lost or stolen. These tags are quite reliable and can be one of the best solutions for tracking your pet in a hassle free manner.